I find this a good thing. It is to be deplored that the great preference for England which dominated a part of the family could not have taken the direction of familiarizing him from childhood on with the English language, whose last golden age was then in bloom, and which is so much closer to German. But we may hope that he would have preferred to produce literature and philosophy in Latin, rather than in French, if he had enjoyed a strict scholarly education.
As Jerry Dawson makes clear, the war between France and Prussia inwith the resulting collapse of the Prussian armies and the humiliating peace terms dictated to Prussia by Napoleon, proved to be the final factor needed to turn [Schleiermacher] to nationalism with a complete and almost reckless abandon.
The Prussian defeat caused Schleiermacher to lose his appointment at the University of Halle, and he fled to Berlin, the Prussian capital, where he lectured at the university and preached at various churches. Sheehan This vision of Germany as a union of relatively autonomous principalities was partly a compensation for the then prevailing international conflict, and it is somewhat backward-looking, traced with a nostalgia for the domestic political organization that prevailed before the French occupation.
Schleiermacher himself was a member of a bourgeois cultural elite, but his nationalist ideology is such that it admits aristocracy, monarchy, even an imperialist tendency—but only when they constitute a national unity resistant to foreign domination. His theory of foreignizing translation should be seen as anti-French because it opposes the translation method that dominated France since neoclassicism, viz.
Who would want to contend that nothing has ever been translated into French from the classical languages or from the Germanic languages! But even though we Germans are perfectly willing to listen to this advice, we should not follow it. In a satiric dialogue fromA. Schlegel had already made explicit the nationalist ideology at work in identifying French culture with a domesticating translation method: Frenchman: The Germans translate every literary Tom, Dick, and Harry. We either do not translate at all, or else we translate according to our own taste.
German: Which is to say, you paraphrase and you disguise. Frenchman: We look on a foreign author as a stranger in our company, who has to dress and behave according to our customs, if he desires to please. German: How narrow-minded of you to be pleased only by what is native.
Frenchman: Such is our nature and our education. Did the Greeks not hellenize everything as well? German: In your case it goes back to a narrow-minded nature and a conventional education. In ours education is our nature. Here nationalism is equivalent to universalism: An inner necessity, in which a peculiar calling of our people expresses itself clearly enough, has driven us to translating en masse; we cannot go back and we must go on.
This appears indeed to be the real historical aim of translation in general, as we are used to it now. Lefevere Thus, readers of the canon of world literature would experience the linguistic and cultural difference of foreign texts, but only as a difference that is Eurocentric, mediated by a German bourgeois elite. Ultimately, it would seem that foreignizing translation does not so much introduce the foreign into German culture as use the foreign to confirm and develop a sameness, a process of fashioning an ideal cultural self on the basis of an other, a cultural narcissism, which is endowed, moreover, with historical necessity.
This assumes, contrary to the lecture, that German culture has already attained a significant level of development, presumably in classical and romantic literature, which must be protected from foreign contamination and imposed universally, through a specifically German foreignization of world literature.
It also does not recognize antinomies in its thinking about language and human subjectivity which are likewise determined by a bourgeois nationalism. Schleiermacher evinces an extraordinarily clear sense of the constitutive properties of language, those that make representation always an appropriative activity, never transparent or merely adequate to its object, active in the construction of subjectivity by establishing forms for consciousness.
We understand the spoken word as a product of language and as an expression of its spirit only when we feel that only a Greek, for instance, could think and speak in that way, that only this particular language could operate in a human mind this way, and when we feel at the same time that only this man could think and speak in the Greek fashion in this way, that only he could seize and shape the language in this manner, that only his living possession of the riches of language reveals itself like this, an alert sense for measure and euphony which belongs Album) him alone, a power of thinking and shaping which is peculiarly his.
The passage is a reminder that Schleiermacher is setting up the understanding of language associated with a particular national cultural elite as the standard by which language use is made intelligible and judged. There is another kind of thinking in his lecture that runs counter to this idealist strain, even if impossibly caught in its tangles: a recognition of the cultural and social conditions of language and a projection of a translation practice that takes them into account instead of working to conceal them.
Schleiermacher sees translation as an everyday fact of life, not merely an activity performed on literary and philosophical texts, but necessary for intersubjective understanding, active in the very process of communication, because language is determined by various differences—cultural, social, historical: For not only are the dialects spoken by different tribes belonging to the same nation, and the different stages of the same language or dialect in different centuries, different languages in the strict sense of the word; moreover even contemporaries who are not separated by dialects, but merely belong to different classes, which are not often linked through social intercourse and are far apart in education, often can understand each other only by means of a similar mediation.
For in what other way—except precisely by means of these influences—would it have developed and grown from its first raw state to its more perfect elaboration in scholarship and art? In this sense, therefore, it is the living power of the individual which creates new forms by means of the plastic material of language, at first only for the immediate purpose of communicating a passing consciousness; yet now more, now less of it remains behind in the language, is taken up by Album), and reaches out, a shaping force.
Lefevere This passage reverses its logic. The discursive innovations and deviations introduced by foreignizing translation are thus a potential threat to target-language cultural values, but they perform their revisionary work only from within, developing translation strategies from the diverse discourses that circulate in the target language. The foreign in foreignizing translation then meant a specific selection of foreign texts literary, philosophical, scholarly and a development of discursive peculiarities that opposed both French cultural hegemony, especially among the aristocracy, and the literary discourses favored by the largest segment of readers, both middle- and working-class.
It is this ideological ensemble that must be jettisoned in any revival of foreignizing translation to intervene against the contemporary ascendancy of transparent discourse. Today, transparency is the dominant discourse in poetry and prose, fiction and nonfiction, bestsellers and print journalism. Even if the electronic media have weakened the economic, political, and cultural hegemony of print in the post-World War II period, the idealist concept of literature that underwrites that discourse continues to enjoys considerable institutional power, housed not only in the academy and in the literary cultures of various educated elites, but in the publishing industry and the mass-audience periodical press.
Transparent discourse is eminently consumable in the contemporary cultural marketplace, which in turn influences publishing decisions to exclude foreign texts that preempt transparency.
Schleiermacher shows that the first opportunity to foreignize translation occurs in the choice of foreign text, wherein the translator can resist the dominant discourse in Anglo-American culture by restoring excluded texts and possibly reforming the canon of foreign literatures in English. Schleiermacher also suggests that foreignizing translation puts to work a specific discursive strategy.
With rare exceptions, English-language theorists and practitioners of English-language translation have neglected Schleiermacher. Because this method is so entrenched in English-language translation, Lefevere is unable to see that the detection of unidiomatic language, especially in literary texts, is culturally specific: what is unidiomatic in one cultural formation can be aesthetically effective in another.
Any dismissive treatment of Schleiermacher maintains the forms of domestication in English- language translation today, hindering reflection on how different methods of translating can resist the questionable values that dominate Anglo-American culture. Schleiermacher can indeed offer a way out. A translator could of course formulate a theory of foreignizing translation, whether or not inspired by the German tradition, but the theory would be a response to a peculiarly English situation, motivated by different cultural and political interests.
Such was the case with Francis Newman —the accomplished brother of the Cardinal. A classical scholar who taught for many years, first at Manchester New College, then University College, London, Newman was a prolific writer on a variety of topics, some scholarly, others religious, many of urgent social concern. He produced commentaries on classical texts Aeschylus, Euripides and dictionaries and vocabularies for oriental languages and dialects Arabic, Libyan.
He wrote a spiritual autobiography and many religious treatises that reflected his own wavering belief in Christianity and the heterodox nature of that belief e. And he issued a steady stream of lectures, essays, and pamphlets that demonstrated his intense involvement in a wide range of political issues. He criticized English colonialism, recommending government reforms that would allow the colonized to enter the political process.
His Essays on Diet advocated vegetarianism, and on several occasions he supported state enforcement of sobriety, partly as a means of curbing prostitution. Compared to Schleiermacher, Newman enlisted translation in a more democratic cultural politics, assigned a pedagogical function but pitched deliberately against an academic elite. It rescues the patriot from the temptation of being unjust to the foreigner, by proving that that does not conduce to the welfare of his own people.
In his Introductory Lecture to the Classical Course at Manchester New College, he asserted that we do not advocate any thing exclusive. A one-sided cultivation may appear at first like carrying out the principle of division of labour, yet in fact it does not tend even to the general benefit and progress of truth, much less to the advantage of the individual. Of course a necessary inference from such a dogma is, that whatever has a foreign colour is undesirable and is even a grave defect.
The translator, it seems, must carefully obliterate all that is characteristic of the original, unless it happens to be identical in spirit to something already familiar in English. From such a notion I cannot too strongly express my intense dissent. I am at precisely the opposite;—to retain every peculiarity of the original, so far as I am able, with the greater care, the more foreign it may happen to be,—whether it be a matter of taste, of intellect, or of morals.
Every expression which does not stand the logical test, however transparent the meaning, however justified by analogies, is apt to be condemned; and every difference of mind and mind, showing itself in the style, is deprecated. In the preface to his Iliad, Newman defined more precisely the sort of archaism Homer required. Thus, he saw nothing inconsistent in faulting the modernizing tendencies of previous Horace translators while he himself expurgated the Latin text, inscribing it with an English sense of moral propriety.
It exhibits, no doubt, mournful facts concerning the relations of the sexes in Augustan Rome,—facts not in themselves so shocking, as many which oppress the heart in the cities of Christendom; and this, I think, it is instructive to perceive. Only in a few instances, where the immorality is too ugly to be instructive have I abruptly cut away the difficulty.
In general, Horace aimed at a higher beauty than did Catullus or Propertius or Ovid, and the result of a purer taste is closely akin to that of a sounder morality.
This too was homegrown, a rich stew drawn from various periods of English, but it deviated from current usage and cut across various literary discourses, poetry and the novel, elite and popular, English Album) Scottish. Yet it was also used later as a distinctly poetic form, a poeticism, in widely read Victorian writers like Tennyson and Dickens.
The glossary was a scholarly gesture that indicated the sheer heterogeneity of his lexicon, its diverse literary origins, and his readers no doubt found it useful when they took up other books, in various genres, periods, dialects. But what would Horace say, if he could come to life, and find himself singing the two stanzas subjoined? In calling for a rhymed version, they inscribed the unrhymed Latin text with the verse form that dominated current English poetry while insisting that rhyme made the translation closer to Horace.
Yet the very heterogeneity of his translations, their borrowings from various literary discourses, gave the lie to this assumption by pointing to the equally heterogeneous nature of the audience. The cultural force of his challenge can be gauged from the reception of his Iliad. And this choice embroiled him in a midcentury controversy over the prosody of Homeric translations, played out both in numerous reviews and essays and in a spate of English versions with the most different verse forms: rhymed and unrhymed, ballad meter and Spenserian stanza, hendecasyllabics and hexameters.
Here too the stakes were at once cultural—competing readings of the Greek texts—and political— competing concepts of the English nation. In modern prose the Latinists have prevailed; but in a poetry which aims to be antiquated and popular, I must rebel. It drew on an analogous Greek form affiliated with a nationalist movement to win political autonomy from foreign domination or, more precisely, a criminal fringe of this movement, the Klepht resistance.
And it assumed an English culture that was national yet characterized by social divisions, in which cultural values were ranged hierarchically among various groups, academic and nonacademic. This is an antiquarianism that canonized the Greek past while approaching the English present with a physical squeamishness. I think, even, that in our country a powerful misdirection of this kind is often more likely to subjugate and pervert opinion than to be checked and corrected by it.
Translation bridges this division, but only by eliminating the nonscholarly. For he is to be noble; and no plea of wishing to be plain and natural can get him excused from being this. Any translation was likely to be offensive to Arnold, given his scholarly adulation of the Greek text. Rossignol, or Mr. Bright M. Yet because Homeric nobleness depended on the individual personality of the writer or reader and could only be experienced, not described, it was autocratic and irrational.
Newman questioned the authority Arnold assigned to the academy in the formation of a national culture. He pointed out that England was multicultural, a site of different values, and although an academic himself he sided with the nonacademic: Scholars are the tribunal of Erudition, but of Taste the educated but unlearned public is the only rightful judge; and to it I wish to appeal.
Even scholars collectively have no right, and much less have single scholars, to pronounce a final sentence on questions of taste in their court. Arnold deprecates appeal to popular taste: well he may! Yet if the unlearned are to be our audience, we cannot defy them.
I myself, before venturing to print, sought to ascertain how unlearned women and children would accept my verses. I could boast how children and half-educated women have extolled them; how greedily a working man has inquired for them, without knowing who was the translator. He believed that if the living Homer Privilege - Paul Jones - The Paul Jones Collection - Vol.
1 - My Way (CD sing his lines to us, they would at first move in us the same pleasing interest as an elegant and simple melody from an African of the Gold Coast; but that, after hearing twenty lines, we should complain of meagreness, sameness, and loss of moral expression; and should judge the style to be as inferior to our own oratorical metres, as the music of Pindar to our third-rate modern music.
In arguing for a historicist approach to translation, Newman demonstrated that scholarly English critics like Arnold violated their own principle of universal reason by using it to justify an abridgement of the Greek text: Homer never sees things in the same proportions as we see them. The reception was mixed. Reviewers were especially divided on the question of whether the ballad or the hexameter was the acceptable verse form for Homeric translation.
Our literature shows no regard for dignity, no reverence for law. Not every reviewer agreed with Arnold on the need for an academic elite to establish a national English culture. Yet the criteria were mostly Arnoldian. Arnold is right in placing Homer in a very different class from the ballad-poets with whom he has frequently been compared.
The ballad, in its most perfect form, belongs to a rude state of society—to a time when ideas were few. This cannot be said of Homer. This can be seen, first, in the publishing histories of the controversial documents. Chandler — William Morris […] has overlaid Homer with all the grotesqueness, the conceits, the irrationality of the Middle Ages, as Mr.
They are provincial; they are utterly without distinction; they are unspeakably absurd. Speaker were to deliver one of these solemn pronouncements in any cockney or county dialect, he would leave upon his hearers the same sense of the grotesque and the undignified which a reader carries away from an author who, instead of using his own language in its richest and truest literary form, takes up a linguistic fad, and, in pursuit of it, makes his work provincial instead of literary.
Produced by the director of the excavations at Glastonbury Abbey, F. Interestingly, the passage of automatic writing quoted by the reviewer links English archaism once again to the unlearned, the subordinate: it shows the stonemason resisting the use of Latin architectural terms imposed on him by monkish treatises: Ye names of builded things are very hard in Latin tongue— transome, fanne tracery, and the like.
Wee wold speak in the Englyshe tongue. Ye saide that ye volte was multipartite yt was fannes olde style in ye este ende of ye choire and ye newe volt in Edgares chappel…. Glosterfannes repeated. Fannes… again yclept fanne… Johannes lap…mason. The stigma attached to archaism involved an exclusion of the popular that is also evident in prescriptive stylistic manuals, like H.
Fowler included an entry on archaism that treated it as dangerous except in the hands of an experienced writer who can trust his sense of congruity.
Even when used to give colour to conversation in historical romances, what Stevenson called tushery is more likely to irritate the reader than to please him.
And the reader he had in mind obviously preferred transparent discourse. In the academy, where Arnold the apologist for an academic elite was ensconced as a canonical writer, the historicizing translations of Newman and Morris have repeatedly been subjected to Arnoldian thrashings.
InJ. Cohen agreed with Arnold in attributing what he considered the defects of Victorian translation to its historicism. Perhaps that is the source of his speed, directness and simplicity that Matthew Arnold heard—and his nobility too, elusive yet undeniable, that Arnold chased but never really caught.
For the more literal approach seems too little English, and the more literary seems too little Greek. I have tried to find a cross between the two, a modern English Homer. Perhaps most importantly, the controversy shows that domesticating translation can be resisted without necessarily privileging a cultural elite. Newman instead assumed a more democratic concept of an English national culture, acknowledging its diversity and refusing to allow a cultural minority like the academy to dominate the nation.
Foreignizing translation is based on the assumption that literacy is not universal, that communication is complicated by cultural differences between and within linguistic communities.
But foreignizing is also an attempt to recognize and allow those differences to shape cultural discourses in the target language. Newman demonstrated, however, that foreignizing translation can be a form of resistance in a democratic cultural politics.
The Victorian controversy also offers a practical lesson for contemporary English-language translators. Close translation certainly risks obscure diction, awkward constructions, and hybrid forms, but these vary in degree from one foreign text to another and from one domestic situation to another.
Hence, close translation is foreignizing only because its approximation of the foreign text entails deviating from dominant domestic values—like transparent discourse. In foreignizing translation, the ethnocentric violence that every act of translating wreaks on a foreign text is matched by a violent disruption of domestic values that challenges cultural forms of domination, whether nationalist or elitist.
Foreignizing undermines the very concept of nation by invoking the diverse constituencies that any such concept tends to elide. Chapter 4 Dissidence The fundamental error of the translator is that he stabilizes the state in which his own language happens to find itself instead of allowing his language to be powerfully jolted by the foreign language.
Rudolf Pannwitz trans. Richard Sieburth The search for alternatives to the domesticating tradition in English- language translation leads to various foreignizing practices, both in the choice of foreign texts and in the invention of translation discourses.
At the time it was noted that if he was kept in prison, "he would be unable to attend a reception at the White House in honor of American poets. During the process his lawyer William M. Kunstler told the press Baraka "feels it's the responsibility of the writers of America to support him across the board". Backing for his attempts to have the sentence cancelled or reduced came from "letters of support from elected officials, artists and teachers around the country". The judge noted that having Baraka serve his 90 days on weekends would allow him to continue his teaching obligations at Stony Brook.
While serving his sentence he wrote The Autobiographytracing his life from birth to his conversion to socialism. Baraka insisted that a Village Voice editor titled it and not himself. In the essay Baraka went over his life history, including his marriage to Hettie Cohen, who was Jewish.
He stated that after the assassination of Malcolm X he found himself thinking, "As a Black man married to a white woman, I began to feel estranged from her How could someone be married to the enemy? In the essay Baraka went on to say. We also know that much of the vaunted Jewish support of Black civil rights organizations was in order to use them. Jews, finally, are white, and suffer from the same kind of white chauvinism that separates a great many whites from Black struggle.
In the essay he also defended his position against Israel, saying, "Zionism is a form of racism. Anti-Semitism is as ugly an idea and as deadly as white racism and Zionism As for my personal trek through the wasteland of anti-Semitism, it was momentary and never completely real.
I have written only one poem that has definite aspects of anti-Semitism Smile jew. Dance, jew. Tell me you love me, jew. I got something for you I got the extermination blues, jewboys.
I got the hitler syndrome figured So come for the rent, jewboys During the —83 academic year, Baraka returned to Columbia University as a visiting professor, teaching a course entitled "Black Women and Their Fictions". After becoming a full professor of African Studies at Stony Brook inBaraka took an indefinite visiting appointment in Rutgers University's English department in ; over the next two years, he taught a number of courses in African American literature and music.
Although Baraka sought a permanent, tenured appointment at the rank of full professor in early in part due to the proximity between the University's campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey and his home in Newarkhe did not attain the requisite two-thirds majority of the senior faculty in a contentious 9—8 vote that favored his appointment. Baraka would go on to collectively liken the committee to an " Ivy League Goebbels " while also characterizing the senior faculty as "powerful Klansmen ", leading to a condemnation from department chair Barry Qualls.
Intogether with Maya Angelou and Toni Morrisonhe was a speaker at the commemoration ceremony for James Baldwin. In he co-authored the autobiography of Quincy Jonesand in he was a supporting actor in Warren Beatty 's film Bulworth.
During the Geraldine R. Because there was no mechanism in the law to remove Baraka from the post, and he refused to step down, the position of state poet laureate was officially abolished by the State Legislature and Governor McGreevey. His son, Ras J. Baraka bornis a politician and activist in Newark, who served as principal of Newark's Central High Schoolas an elected member of the Municipal Council of Newark —06, —present representing the South Ward.
Ras J. Baraka became Mayor of Newark on July 1, See Newark mayoral election. Amiri Baraka died on January 9,at Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey, after being hospitalized in the facility's intensive care unit for one month before his death. The cause of death was not reported initially, but it is mentioned that Baraka had a long struggle with diabetes. Most American white men are trained to be fags. For this reason it is no wonder their faces are weak and blank The average ofay [white person] thinks of the black man as potentially raping every white lady in sight.
Which is true, in the sense that the black man should want to rob the white man of everything he has. But for most whites the guilt of the robbery is the guilt of rape. That is, they know in their deepest hearts that they should be robbed, and the white woman understands that only in the rape sequence is she likely to get cleanly, viciously popped.
Inhe was again asked about the quote, and placed it in a personal and political perspective:. Those quotes are from the essays in Homea book written almost fifty years ago. The anger was part of the mindset created by, first, the assassination of John Kennedyfollowed by the assassination of Patrice Lumumbafollowed by the assassination of Malcolm X amidst the lynching, and national oppression.
What changed my mind was that I became a Marxist, after recognizing classes within the Black community and the class struggle even after we had worked and struggled to elect the first Black Mayor of Newark, Kenneth Gibson. The poem is highly critical of racism in America, and includes humorous depictions of public figures such as Trent LottClarence Thomasand Condoleezza Rice. It also contains lines claiming Israel's knowledge of the World Trade Center attacks:. Who know why Five Israelis was filming the explosion And cracking they sides at the notion Baraka said that he believed Israelis and President George W.
Bush had advance knowledge of the September 11 attacks,  citing what he described as information that had been reported in the American and Israeli press and on Jordanian television. Baraka himself denied that the poem is antisemitic due to the use of word Israeli rather than Jewish. The ADL noted that the " workers" conspiracy theory had initially referred to Jews writ large  and that Baraka was using a common antisemitic tactic of replacing references to Jews writ large with references to Israel and then claiming a comment is merely anti-Zionist.
McGreevey learned that there was no legal way, according to the law authorizing and defining the position, to remove Baraka. On October 17,legislation to abolish the post was introduced in the State Senate and subsequently signed by Governor McGreevey, becoming effective July 2, Baraka ceased being poet laureate when the law became effective.
In response to legal action filed by Baraka, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit ruled that state officials were immune from such suits, and in November the Supreme Court of the United States refused to hear an appeal of the case.
Baraka served as the second Poet Laureate of New Jersey from July until the position was abolished on July 2, In response to the attempts to remove Baraka as the state's Poet Laureate, a nine-member advisory board named him the poet laureate of the Newark Public Schools in December I have seen many suns use the endless succession of hours piled upon each other.
Despite numerous controversies and polarizing content of his work, Baraka's literary influence is undeniable. Whenever a show deals with race issues, it gives the audience sweaty palms. I agree with putting it on the stage and making the audience think about it. We see where we came from so we don't repeat it, though we still have a long way to go. A lot of history would disappear if the show was put away forever.
An artist must be true to an era. I'm happy with it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Show Boat disambiguation.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. The New Yorker : — The Complete Book of Light Opera.
New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts. Retrieved December 22, Tin Pan Alley Project. Retrieved May 28, The American Musical. Princeton University Album). Internet Movie Database. Retrieved June 12, New York Times. Retrieved May 15, Retrieved Post-GazetteAugust 23, Retrieved January 6, New York: Oxford University Press.
Retrieved May 24, Brooks December 28, Brooks May 20, The New York Times. Back Stage. Oxford University Press. June 30, Abbeville Press.
Internet Broadway Database. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 27, Archived from the original on Retrieved November 28, See note No. Music — "Show Boat". In: Samples. February 15, The Times Daily. Retrieved January 5, NourbeSe Showing Grit: Showboating North of the 44th Parallel. Out of print 2nd ed.
The Actresses of Italian Origin Notebook. Retrieved January 14, Random House. Retrieved December 31, Fox News. The British Theatre Guide. April 1, American Studies at University of Virginia. The Joe Bob Report. What's New on the Rialto? S2CID Tucson Weekly. Retrieved July 2, Edna Ferber. Our Mrs. A Peculiar Treasure autobiography. Cimarron film Cimarron film. Saratoga Trunk film Saratoga musical.
The Royal Family of Broadway musical. Giant film Giant musical. Gigolo film. Janet Fox. Edna Ferber 's Show Boat Julie Dozier Gaylord Ravenal. Awards for Show Boat. Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical. When we write papers for you, we transfer all the ownership to you. This means that you do not have to acknowledge us in your work not unless you please to do so.
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