A machine to do calculations and logic decisions. Often used by the geeks and nerds to demonstrate their knowledge of the industry to those that are not familiar with the details of computers.
Such knowledge while a luxury in years past, will be a foundational level skill for today's generation coming through the educational system.
Basic computer skills are mandatory. You do not need to be a "nerd" to have basic computer literacy. Each language has a set of commands and functions, called the syntax, that makes the language unique.
Most have translators called compilers to convert the language commands to machine commands. They support and repair most hardware created in the last 35 years. They also design, create and build specialized hardware for situations that require something unique. You are viewing this dictionary on the CSGNetwork site. See About Us. Computing A channel of most online services that features information and discussion on computing and software.
These often have links to sites offering support and drivers to keep equipment and software updated. A device that serves as a point of consolidation of network links so that multiple circuits may share common limited network resources. Concentrators are also used in local-area networks LAN s to combine transmissions from a They Call Me The D.E. - First Degree The D.E. - Before There Was Fahrenheit (CD) of nodes.
Also called a MAU, multiplexorhub or amplifier by industry people. A type of multiplexor that combines multiple They Call Me The D.E. - First Degree The D.E. - Before There Was Fahrenheit (CD) onto a single transmission medium in such a way that all the individual channels can be simultaneously active. For example, ISPs use concentrators to combine their dial-up modem connections onto faster T1 or T3 lines that connect to the Internet.
They are the opposite of insulators. Also see semi-conductor. The term small group varies from provider to provider. These are commonly used in high traffic areas an in online classes found at specific interest Internet sites or areas of an ISP's service.
When two computers have established a path through which the exchange of information can occur. Often said as connection oriented. A term applied to network architectures and services which require the establishment of an end-to-end, predefined circuit prior to the start of a communications session. Frame relay circuits are examples of connection oriented sessions. A term used to describe how business is conducted in the computer, telephone and electronics industries. Cells or packets are sent into the connectionless network, and are sent to their destination based on addresses contained within their headers.
A point of junction in an electrical circuit. By mechanical or electrical means, they can be switched, on or off, closed or open. Contacts that when "closed" connect a pair of wires together and disconnects the wires when "open". A doorbell button is a simple example of a momentary contact closure.
A slang term for a mechanical relay or a smaller version of the same on a chip. The name for a list of people in various name and address programs. The thing that sticks to a programmer's eye when he has worked, staring at a screen for 72 hours straight. Competition for resources, whatever they are.
The term is used especially in networks to describe the situation where two or more nodes attempt to transmit a message packet across the same wire at the same time. When it happens, the process is called a collision. Avoidance processes then take place to attempt to get the messages through. A type of network protocol that allows multiple nodes to contend for prioritized network access.
That is, two or more nodes may try to send messages across the network simultaneously. The contention protocol defines what happens when this occurs. The boss. Also good examples would be the network manager, IT manager, sysop and sysadmin.
The lower 7 bit values are the same as the ASCII character set, but 8 bit values map into the European characters differently from other available character sets, including that used within Windows.
One unusual and certainly non-conforming thing about ECS is that codes andwhich are historically assigned to non-printing control functions such as Carriage Return and Line Feed, are also assigned special graphics for use in situations where control functions are not needed or wanted. That is how you get happy faces, line-drawing characters, arrows and other special characters in ECS displays, along with sometimes needed European characters.
See our list of converters that we have written, available to you at no cost on this site! Usually, a controller of drives or similar devices is present in every computer. A chart or software program that takes a form or value and shows or transforms it into a different scale or value; a translator of languages. A hardware device that changes gender or connection options of cables.
A hardware device that changes the power connection of a laptop computer; a charger. A slang term for modems. In normal operation, small files that are downloaded to your computer when you browse certain web pages.
Cookies hold information that can be retrieved by other web pages on the site. Some cookies are programmed with an expiration date so that they are automatically deleted after a period of time. Modern browsers allow several choices on accepting cookies.
It is a current method of artificial intelligence Also known as sleeping with the enemy. This preventative measure was widely used in the mids but later abandoned by many developers because of numerous customer complaints. It is "utopian" and similar to JAVA because it is open, vendor-independent architecture and has an infrastructure that computer applications use to work together over networks. Using the standard protocol IIOP, a CORBA-based program from any vendor, on almost any computer, operating system, programming language, and network, can interoperate with a CORBA-based program from the same or another vendor, on almost any other computer, operating system, programming language, and network.
CORBA is touted to be useful in many situations. Because of the easy way that CORBA integrates machines from so many vendors, with sizes ranging from mainframes through minis and desktops, to hand-helds and embedded systems, it is the middleware on many large and even not-so-large enterprises.
One of its most important, as well most frequent, uses is in servers that must handle large number of clients, at high hit rates, with high reliability. CORBA works behind the scenes in the computer rooms of many of the world's largest websites; ones that you probably use every day. Designed for scalability and fault-tolerance support for these systems.
But it's not used just for large applications; specialized versions of CORBA run real-time systems, and small embedded systems. The number of electrons which must pass a point in one second to produce a current of one ampere. The quantity which will deposit. CPE 1. Short for Customer Premise Equipment, a telephony term. On digital circuits provided by the telephone company, any terminating hardware owned by the user and not by the Telco telephone company is generically referred to as CPE.
Any equipment, such as telephones, computers, printers, video equipment or other items, that a user can connect to a network. The key thought is that it is possible for the user to do it himself on his location. CPI 1. Short for Characters Per Inch, a printing term. It is the number of characters that will print within one horizontal inch. Also known as Pitch. This can only be predictably calculated with non-proportional fixed spaced fonts where the horizontal space that each character uses is of equal proportion.
CPL 1. Short for Characters Per Line, a printing term. It is the number of characters that will fit on a single horizontal line. See CPI. A CPLD typically contains from tens to a few hundred macrocells.
A group of eight to 16 macrocells is typically grouped together into a larger function block. The macrocells within a function block are usually fully connected. If a device contains multiple function blocks, then the function blocks are further interconnected. Not all CPLDs are fully connected between function blocks. This is vendor and family specific. The designer must verify the programming logic. Typically, each logic block contains 4 to 16 macrocells, depending on the architecture.
CPS 1. Short for Characters Per Second, a printing term. It is the rate at which characters will print to media. There are also many proprietary CPUs in special interest equipment.
The main silicon chip that runs a computer's operating system and application software. It performs a computer's essential mathematical functions and controls essential operations. A malicious hacker who breaks or cracks the security of computer systems in order to access, steal, or destroy sensitive information. See also hacker. A Southern computer person. See an example here of one's work. A Southern red-neck. Once a cracker, always a cracker! Good thing Polly was a Southern Belle.
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check, a simple checksum used for detecting errors in data files, programs and data flow. Credit card memory features a small form factor and is named for its similarity to the size, shape and general appearance of a credit card. This is a term that all computer companies approach but none are really good at accomplishing.
Since computers are virtually antiquated every 18 months as ofyou would think that computer companies would make an effort to turn customers into relationships that would continue to purchase from them. Take the situation of Compaq and the Digital acquisition. Compaq did virtually everything it could to alienate the DEC customers. Why did they buy the company and then run it into the ground? Who knows the answer to that but it has been the history in large acquisitions and mergers.
Will HP do the same or will they value the customer base they acquire? Time will tell. It has the same function as a batch file except the execution order is based on the system clock. It is normally used for sys admin commands, like makewhatis, which builds a search database for the man -k command, or for running a backup script, but can be used for anything.
A common server use is automated response programs, often called time reminders. A common workstation use for it today is connecting to the Internet and downloading E-Mail or user group listings. A computer program that translates machine language code so that it can be read by a different type of CPU. An assembly line worker that is not very happy. See also upload and download. A serial cable to attach a monitor to a port on most minicomputers connects pin 2 on one end to pin 3 on the other.
Transmit talks to receive and receive talks to transmit. However the ground on pin 7 connects to pin 7 at both ends as does the handshake on pin Gratuitous cross-posting is considered poor Netiquette. Crosstalk makes it hard to hear just the intended signal, as there are multiple conversations on the line at once.
See static or noise. CRTs are for all practical purposes, picture tubes. However, the term CRT has become the often used term for a computer station or monitor. A number-cruncher, for example, is a routine or device optimized for and dedicated to processing numbers. One of the most popular Internet encryption schemes is PGP.
Now, is the Swahili form a single word? We can recognize that English word forms such as talks, talker, talked and talking must consist of one element talk, and a number of other elements such as -s, -er, -ed and -ing. All these elements are described as morphemes. In the sentence The police reopened the investigation, the word reopened consists of three morphemes. The word tourists also contains three morphemes.
Free and bound morphemes From these examples, we can make a broad distinction between two types of mor- phemes. There are free morphemes, that is, morphemes that can stand by themselves as single words, for example, open and tour. There are also bound morphemes, which are those forms that cannot normally stand alone and are typically attached to another form, exemplified as re- -ist, -ed, -s.
These forms were described in Chapter 5 as affixes. So, we can say that all affixes prefixes and suffixes in English are bound morphemes. The free morphemes can generally be identified as the set of separate English word forms such as basic nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.
When they are used with bound morphemes attached, the basic word forms are technically known as stems. For example: undressed carelessness un- dress -ed care -less -ness prefix stem suffix stem suffix suffix bound free bound free bound bound We should note that this type of description is a partial simplification of the morpho- logical facts of English.
There are a number of English words in which the element treated as the stem is not, in fact, a free morpheme. In words such as receive, reduce and repeat, we can identify the bound morpheme re- at the beginning, but the elements -ceive, -duce and -peat are not separate word forms and hence cannot be free mor- phemes.
Lexical and functional morphemes What we have described as free morphemes fall into two categories. These free morphemes are called lexical morphemes and some examples are: girl, man, house, tiger, sad, long, yellow, sincere, open, look, follow, break. Morphology 69 Other types of free morphemes are called functional morphemes.
Examples are and, but, when, because, on, near, above, in, the, that, it, them. This set consists largely of the functional words in the language such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns. Derivational and inflectional morphemes The set of affixes that make up the category of bound morphemes can also be divided into two types. One type is described in Chapter 5 in terms of the derivation of words. These are the derivational morphemes. We use these bound morphemes to make new words or to make words of a different grammatical category from the stem.
For example, the addition of the derivational morpheme -ness changes the adjective good to the noun goodness. The noun care can become the adjectives careful or careless by the addition of the derivational morphemes -ful or -less. A list of derivational morphemes will include suffixes such as the -ish in foolish, -ly in quickly, and the -ment in payment.
The list will also include prefixes such as re- pre- ex- mis- co- un- and many more. The second set of bound morphemes contains what are called inflectional mor- phemes. These are not used to produce new words in the language, but rather to indicate aspects of the grammatical function of a word. Inflectional morphemes are used to show if a word is plural or singular, if it is past tense or not, and if it is a comparative or possessive form. One likes to have fun and is always laughing.
The other liked to read as a child and has always taken things seriously. One is the loudest person in the house and the other is quieter than a mouse. There are four inflections attached to verbs: -s 3rd person singular-ing present participle-ed past tense and -en past participle. There are two inflections attached to adjectives: -er comparative and -est superlative. In English, all the inflectional morphemes are suffixes.
Morphological description The difference between derivational and inflectional morphemes is worth emphasiz- ing. An inflectional morpheme never changes the grammatical category of a word. For example, both old and older are adjectives. The -er inflection here from Old English -ra simply creates a different version of the adjective. However, a derivational mor- pheme can change the grammatical category of a word. The verb teach becomes the noun teacher if we add the derivational morpheme -er from Old English -ere.
So, the suffix -er in Modern English can be an inflectional morpheme as part of an adjective and also a distinct derivational morpheme as part of a noun. Whenever there is a derivational suffix and an inflectional suffix attached to the same word, they always appear in that order.
First the derivational -er is attached to teach, then the inflectional -s is added to produce teachers. So far, we have only considered examples of English words in which the different morphemes are easily identifiable as separate elements. The inflectional morpheme -s is added to cat and we get the plural cats.
What is the inflectional morpheme that makes sheep the plural of sheep, or men the plural of man? And if -al is the derivational suffix added to the stem institution to give us institutional, then can we take -al off the word legal to get the stem leg?
For example, the relationship between law and legal is a reflection of the historical influence of different languages on English word forms. The modern form law is a result of a borrowing into Old English lagu from a Scandinavian source over 1, years ago. Consequently, there is no derivational relationship between the noun law and the adjective legal in English, nor between the noun mouth from Old English and the adjective oral a Latin borrowing.
An extremely large number of English words owe their morphological patterning to languages like Latin and Greek. Consequently, a full description of English morphology will have to take account of both historical influences and the effect of borrowed elements.
Morphs and allomorphs One way to treat differences in inflectional morphemes is by proposing variation in morphological realization rules. In order to do this, we draw an analogy with some processes already noted in phonology Chapter 4. Just as we treated phones as the actual phonetic realization of phonemes, so we can propose morphs as the actual forms used to realize morphemes. Yet they are all allomorphs of the one morpheme.
Other languages When we look at the morphology of other languages, we can find other forms and patterns realizing the basic types of morphemes we have identified.
The first example below is from English and the second from a language called Aztec from Central America. In both cases, we attach a derivational morpheme to a stem, then add an inflectional morpheme.
In the following examples, from a range of languages originally described in Gleasonwe can try to work out how different forms in the languages are used to realize morphological processes and features.
Kanuri This first set of examples is from Kanuri, a language spoken in Nigeria. Discovering a regular morphological feature of this type will enable us to make certain predictions when we encounter other forms in the language.
Ganda Different languages also employ different means to produce inflectional marking on forms. Here are some examples from Ganda, a language spoken in Uganda.
Ilocano When we look at Ilocano, a language of the Philippines, we find a quite different way of marking plurals. When the first part is bi- in the singular, the plural begins with this form repeated bibi. There are many languages that use this repetition device as a means of inflectional marking. Tagalog Here are some other intriguing examples from Tagalog, another language spoken in the Philippines.
It is an example of an infix described in Chapter 5. In the third example in each column, note that the change in form involves, in each case, a repetition of the first syllable. So, the marking of future reference in Tagalog appears to be accomplished via reduplication. As we have been exploring all these different morphological processes, we have moved from the basic structure of words to a consideration of some topics traditionally associated with grammar.
We will focus more fully on issues relating to grammar in the next chapter. Morphology 75 Study questions 1 What are the functional morphemes in the following sentence? When he arrived in the morning, the old man had an umbrella and a large plastic bag full of books. Was there an example of an English suppletive form described in this chapter? B The selection of appropriate allomorphs is based on three different effects: lexical conditioning, morphological conditioning or phonological conditioning.
What type of conditioning do you think is involved in the relationship between the words in each of the following pairs? Does English have both? What are some typical English examples?
D Using what you learned about Swahili and information provided in the set of examples below, create appropriate forms as translations of the English expressions 1—6 that follow. F Using what you learned about Tagalog, plus information from the set of examples here, create appropriate forms of these verbs for 1—10 below. This would suggest that the forms which have the regular plural affix -s follow a different rule in compounding than irregular plural forms such as mice.
Can you think of a way to state a rule or sequence of rules that would accommodate all the examples given here? II In Turkish, there is some variation in the plural inflection. Using this information, can you state the conditions under which each of the plural morphs is used? For more examples, see Gleason, For more on Turkish, see Lewis, Further reading Basic treatments Coates, R. He went to the local radio station to record an ad to be read on the air.
The copy was written by someone at the station. I was taught to diagram sentences when in doubt. Please settle it. Feeling Like a Fool. Quoted in Lakoff We have already considered two levels of description used in the study of language.
We have described linguistic expressions as sequences of sounds that can be represented in the phonetic alphabet and described in terms of their features. Voiced fricative voiceless stop diphthong Figure 7. Grammar However, we have not accounted for the fact that these words can only be combined in a limited number of patterns.
From these examples, we can see that English has strict rules for combining words into phrases. The article the must go before the adjective luckywhich must go before the noun boys. The process of describing the structure of phrases and sentences in such a way that we account for all the grammatical sequences in a language and rule out all the ungrammatical sequences is one way of defining grammar.
It is the kind of definition assumed when we talk about the grammar of English as opposed to the grammar of Swahili, Tagalog or Turkish. As illustrated in Chapter 6, each of these languages has different ways of forming grammatical phrases and sentences. Studying grammar in this way has a very long tradition.
The best-known terms from that tradition are those used in describing the parts of speech. The technical terms used to describe each part of speech are illustrated in the following sentence and simple definitions of each term are listed below. Adjectives are words used, typically with nouns, to provide more information about the things referred to happy people, large objects, a strange experience. Adverbs are words used, typically with verbs, to provide more information about actions, states and events slowly, yesterday.
Some adverbs really, very are also used with adjectives to modify information about things Really large objects move slowly. I had a very strange experience yesterday. Pronouns are words she, herself, they, it, you used in place of noun phrases, typically referring to people and things already known She talks to herself. They said it belonged to you. Basic definitions of this type are useful for identifying most forms in a language such as English, but they are not completely reliable.
A different approach might focus on some other properties of the parts of speech. Of course, not all nouns e. Moreover, these characteristics are unlikely to be true of nouns in other lan- guages that we might want to describe. As we shall see, an alternative way of looking at nouns and other parts of speech had to be found in order to carry out structural analysis.
This agreement is partially based on the category of number, that is, whether the noun is singular or plural. It is also based on the category of person, which covers the distinctions of first person involving the speakersecond person involving the hearer and third person involving any others. The different forms of English pro- nouns can be described in terms of person and number. We use I for first person singular, you for second person singular, and he, she, it or Cathy for third person singular.
In addition, the form of the verb must be described in terms of another category called tense. The sentence is also in the active voice, describing what Cathy does i. An alternative would be the passive voice, which can be used to describe what happens to Cathy i.
Our final category is gender, which helps us describe the agreement between Cathy and her in our example sentence. In English, we have to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender, mainly derived from a biological distinction between male and female.
The agreement between Cathy and her is based on a distinction made in English between reference to female entities she, hermale entities he, his and things or creatures, when the sex is unknown or irrelevant it, its.
Grammatical gender The type of biological distinction used in English is quite different from the more common distinction found in languages that use grammatical gender. Whereas natural gender is based on sex male and femalegrammatical gender is based on the type of noun masculine and feminine and is not tied to sex. The different forms of the articles in both the Spanish el or la and German der, die or das examples correspond to differences in the gender class of the nouns.
We should emphasize that this gender distinction is not based on a distinction in sex. So, the grammatical category of gender is very usefully applied in describing a number of languages including Latinbut may not be appropriate for describing forms in other languages such as English.
For more on gender, see Chapter First person singular I love amo Present tense, active voice Second person singular you love amas Third person singular she loves amat First person plural we love amamus Second person plural you love amatis Third person plural they love amant Each of the Latin verb forms is different, according to the categories of person and number, yet the English verb forms are with one exception mostly the same.
In English, it makes more sense to say the categories describe different pro- nouns. The influence of Latin, however, goes beyond the types of descriptive labels. The prescriptive approach It is one thing to adopt the grammatical labels e. Some familiar examples of prescriptive rules for English sentences are: You must not split an infinitive. You must not end a sentence with a preposition.
Following these types of rules, traditional teachers would correct sentences like Who did you go with? And Mary runs faster than me would be corrected to Mary runs faster than I. And Me and my family would certainly have to be corrected to My family and I, as Ann Landers would recommend. And, in proper English writing, one should never begin a sentence with and! However, it is worth considering the origins of some They Call Me The D.E. - First Degree The D.E.
- Before There Was Fahrenheit (CD) these rules and asking whether they are appropriately applied to the English language. At the beginning of each televised Star Trek episode, one of the main characters, Captain Kirk, always used the expression To boldly go … This is an example of a split infinitive. Now, in saying Ire audacter … in Latin, Capitaneus Kirkus would not even have the opportunity to split his infinitive irebecause Latin infinitives are single words and just do not split.
It would be very appropriate in Latin grammar to say you cannot split an infinitive. But is it appropriate to carry this idea over into English where the infinitive form does not consist of a single word, but of two words, to and go?
The descriptive approach It may be that using a well-established grammatical description of Latin is a useful guide for some European languages e. Italian or Spanishis less useful for others e. Englishand may be absolutely misleading if you are trying to describe some non-European languages.
This last point became clear to those linguists who were trying to describe the structure of the native languages of North America toward the end of the nineteenth century.
The categories and rules that were appropriate for Latin grammar just did not seem to fit these languages. As a consequence, for most of the twentieth century, a rather different approach was adopted. This is called the descriptive approach. Structural analysis One type of descriptive approach is called structural analysis and its main concern is to investigate the distribution of forms in a language.
For example: The makes a lot of noise. I heard a yesterday. There are a lot of forms that can fit into these slots to produce good grammatical sentences of English e. As a result, we can propose that because all these forms fit in the same test-frame, they are likely to be examples of the same grammatical category.
Examples would be Cathy, someone, the dog, a car, and many others. For these forms, we require different test-frames, which could look like this: makes a lot of noise. I heard yesterday. Among the other forms that comfortably fit these test-frames are it, the big dog, an old car, Ani Difranco, the professor with the Scottish accent, and many more. Once again, we can suggest that these forms are likely to be examples of the same grammatical category. By developing a set of test-frames of this type and discovering which forms fit the slots in the test-frames, we can produce a descrip- tion of at least some aspects of the sentence structures of a language.
The technique employed in this approach is designed to show how small constituents or components in sentences go together to form larger constituents. One basic step is determining how words go together to form phrases. In the following sentence, we can identify nine constituents at the word level: An old man brought a shotgun to the wedding.
How do those nine constituents go together to form constituents at the phrase level? Does it seem appropriate to put the words together as follows? We are more likely to say that the phrase-like constituents here are combinations of the following types: an old man, a shotgun, the wedding, which are noun phrases; to the wedding, which is a prepositional phrase; and brought a shotgun, which is a verb phrase.
This analysis of the constituent structure of the sentence can be represented in different types of diagrams. One type of diagram simply shows the distribution of the constituents at different levels.
An old man brought a shotgun to the wedding Figure 7. One advantage of this type of analysis is that it shows They Call Me The D.E. - First Degree The D.E. - Before There Was Fahrenheit (CD) clearly that proper nouns or names Gwen, Kingston and pronouns I, him, herthough they are single words, can be used as noun phrases and fill the same constituent space as longer phrases e.
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Which novels would you recommend to year-olds on the theme of places and forms of power? In The Pearl, why didn't John Steinbeck give the pearl buyers identifying names? What is perfidy from Sister Carrie, by Theodore Dreiser? Is being pedantic a good or bad thing? Is a termagant a type of seabird? What is ichor from The Iliad? Is a rivulet really a river, only smaller? Charles Dickens has this person called the beadle" in lots of his books. Is that like a nickname for a man with buggy eyes or something?
What is the main tenet of stoicism? What's the meaning of obsequious from Theodore Dreiser's urban novel Sister Carrie? Where are the Antipodes from Much Ado about Nothing? What is a truckle bed from Romeo and Juliet?
What does truculent from Great Expectations mean? If someone inculcates you, should you feel insulted? Nice or mean? What does laconic mean? At a restaurant famous for its rude servers, a waitress told me to lump it" when I asked for another napkin.
Can you tell me about that phrase? I thought necro had something to do with being dead. So, what's a necromancer? Sounds creepy.
In Orwell'swhat does the opening sentence suggest about the book? Understanding the literary genre Magical Realism What's a prig? I asked my granddad if he liked his new apartment and he said, It's all hunky-dory, kiddo. I hate finding typos in books. Here's one I've seen several times: jalousies instead of jealousies.
On the second week of my summer job at a bookstore, my boss handed me an envelope with what she called my emoluments. Looked like a paycheck to me, though. In To Kill a Mockingbird, what are some examples of the characters having courage? What's cud? I was once told to stop chewing my cud and get back to work. What can you tell me about the word patois from The Awakening? What are thews from Ivanhoe? What does pot-shop from The Pickwick Papers mean?
Are all dowagers women? If someone is the titular head of a political party, does it mean they have all the power? The word flummox confuses me. What does it mean? Somebody told me I looked pasty. Does that mean I've eaten too many sweets? I started taking private bassoon lessons. Is anomalous the same as anonymous?
I know that a fathom is a unit of measure used by sailors, but how long is a fathom? What is a joss from Victory, by Joseph Conrad? What does eschew from The Pickwick Papers mean? What does excrescence from The Call of the Wild mean? What does the word covert mean? In Shakespeare's Sonnetwhat is an oblation? In Moby-Dickwhat does vitiate mean? In War and Peacewhat does bane mean? In Jane Eyrewhat are chilblains? Does mendacious They Call Me The D.E.
- First Degree The D.E. - Before There Was Fahrenheit (CD) to something that is fixable mendable? Is kickshawses one of those weird words that Shakespeare coined? What is renegein Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra? What is maxim? I think it's a female name but I'm not sure. Last Valentine's Day, this guy I barely know gave me a rose and said something about ardent love. What does ardent mean? What kind of literature is a picaresque novel?
What does culpable mean? What's a cenotaph? What does gallimaufry mean in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo? My vocabulary is pretty good, but that one has me stumped! What does it mean to genuflect? Someone told me I was looking wistful. What is wistful? In David Copperfield, what does superannuated mean? Does the word syllogism have something to do with biology? I see the word benefactor a lot in my reading assignments.
Is that somebody who benefits from something? I found a funny word in The Glass Castle. Where did skedaddle come from and what does it mean? Does sinuous mean something like full of sin"? I saw the word in The Devil in the White City. What are characteristics of Modernist literature, fiction in particular?
What does my brother mean when he says he's too ensconced in his studies to look for a girlfriend? My grandpa complained about a bunch of politicians making what he called chin music. Did he mean they were in a loud band? What is melodrama? In Dracula, what's a missal? In the terms abject poverty and abject misery, what does abject mean? In Moby-Dick, what does craven mean? What does cicatrize mean? What is a noisome smell" in Tolstoy's War and Peace? In Jane Eyre, what's syncope?
I just read Dracula. What's the forcemeat in Jonathan Harker's journal? Can the word stern mean more than one thing? Where is Yoknapatawpha county? What does smouch mean? The Paris Review. Spring The Veldt. Woodstock, Illinois: Dramatic Publishing. Retrieved December 9, Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved September 30, November 10, It's the art of the possible.
Science fiction is the art of the possible. It could happen. It has happened. I am a fantasy writer. But the label got put on me and stuck. Retrieved February 14, Zen in the Art of Writing.
Walton, and Molly Weigel, eds. American Writers Supp. New York: Macmillan Library Reference. Subterranean Press. Archived from the original on August 22, Florida State University Libraries. Dayton Daily News. Retrieved June 2, I Want to Prevent It". Quote Investigator. Retrieved February 21, Retrieved July 15, Well, they are all Bradbury's ideas". American Writers: a Collection of Literary Biographies.
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Stephen King. Daughter and Other Poems. Salmon Publishing. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. New York: HarperCollins. Archived from the original on September 9, Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved August 14, Locus Publications. Retrieved April 2, Quote: "Effective Januaryhere are the new rules for the Nebula Awards. The Times. Retrieved January 28, Chicago Tribune. Press release, office of Mayor Hahn, April 1, Woodbury university. Archived from the original on June 18, We also accept payment through.
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