Avevano il vantaggio di essere riutilizzabili: la cera poteva essere fusa e riformare una "pagina bianca". Erano utilizzate anche le cortecce di albero, come per esempio quelle della Tiliae altri materiali consimili. La parola greca per papiro come materiale di scrittura biblion e libro biblos proviene dal porto fenicio di Bibloda dove si esportava il papiro verso la Grecia. Tomus fu usato dai latini con lo stesso significato di volumen vedi sotto anche la spiegazione di Isidoro di Siviglia.
Che fossero fatti di papiro, pergamena o carta, i rotoli furono la forma libraria dominante della cultura ellenisticaromanacinese ed ebraica.
Gli autori cristiani potrebbero anche aver voluto distinguere i loro scritti dai testi pagani scritti su rotoli. La storia del libro continua a svilupparsi con la graduale transizione dal rotolo al codexspostandosi dal Vicino Oriente del II - II millennio a.
Fino al II secolo d. All'arrivo del Medioevocirca mezzo millennio dopo, i codici - di foggia e costruzione in tutto simili al libro moderno - rimpiazzarono il rotolo e furono composti principalmente di pergamena.
Quattro son troppi? Anche nei suoi distici, Marziale continua a citare il codex: un anno prima del suddetto, una raccolta di distici viene pubblicata con lo scopo di accompagnare donativi.
Questa mole composta da numerosi fogli contiene quindici libri poetici del Nasone». Dal II secolo a. Nel mondo antico non godette di molta fortuna a causa del prezzo elevato rispetto a quello del papiro. Il libro in forma di rotolo consisteva in fogli preparati da fibre di papiro phylire Pressure - Kamchatka - The Search Goes On (CD in uno strato orizzontale lo strato che poi riceveva la scrittura sovrapposto ad uno strato verticale la faccia opposta. La scrittura era effettuata su colonne, generalmente sul lato del papiro che presentava le fibre orizzontali.
Non si hanno molte testimonianze sui rotoli di pergamena tuttavia la loro forma era simile a quella dei libri in papiro. Gli inchiostri neri utilizzati erano a base di nerofumo e gomma arabica. Dal II secolo d. La vecchia forma libraria a rotolo scompare in ambito librario.
In forma notevolmente differente permane invece in ambito archivistico. Questo mezzo, permettendo l'accelerazione della produzione delle copie di testi contribuisce alla diffusione del libro e della cultura.
Altri suoi distici rivelano che tra i regali fatti da Marziale c'erano copie di Virgiliodi Cicerone e Livio.
Le parole di Marziale danno la distinta impressione che tali edizioni fossero qualcosa di recentemente introdotto. Sono stati rinvenuti "taccuini" contenenti fino a dieci tavolette. Nel tempo, furono anche disponibili modelli di lusso fatti con tavolette di avorio invece che di legno.
Ai romani va il merito di aver compiuto questo passo essenziale, e devono averlo fatto alcuni decenni prima della fine del I secolo d. Il grande vantaggio che offrivano rispetto ai rolli era la capienza, vantaggio che sorgeva dal fatto che la facciata esterna del rotolo era lasciata in bianco, vuota.
Il codice invece aveva scritte entrambe le facciate di ogni pagina, come in un libro moderno. La prima pagina porta il volto del poeta. I codici di cui parlava erano fatti di pergamena ; nei distici che accompagnavano il regalo di una copia di Omeroper esempio, Marziale la descrive come fatta di "cuoio con molte pieghe".
Ma copie erano anche fatte di fogli di papiro. Quando i greci ed i romani disponevano solo del rotolo per scrivere libri, si preferiva usare il papiro piuttosto che la pergamena.
I ritrovamenti egiziani ci permettono di tracciare il graduale rimpiazzo del rotolo da parte del codice. Fece la sua comparsa in Egitto non molto dopo il tempo di Marziale, nel II secolo d. Il suo debutto fu modesto. A tutt'oggi sono stati rinvenuti 1. Verso il d. I ritrovamenti egiziani gettano luce anche sulla transizione del codex dal papiro alla pergamena.
Sebbene gli undici codici della Bibbia datati in quel secolo fossero papiracei, esistono circa 18 codici dello stesso secolo con scritti pagani e quattro di questi sono in pergamena.
Non ne scegliemmo alcuno, ma ne raccogliemmo altri otto per i quali gli diedi dracme in conto. Il codex tanto apprezzato da Marziale aveva quindi fatto molta strada da Roma. Nel terzo secolo, quando tali codici divennero alquanto diffusi, quelli di pergamena iniziarono ad essere popolari. In breve, anche in Egittola fonte mondiale del papiroil codice di pergamena occupava una notevole quota di mercato. Sono tutti di pergamena, edizioni eleganti, scritti in elaborata calligrafia su sottili fogli di pergamena.
Per tali edizioni di lusso il papiro era certamente inadatto. In almeno un'area, la giurisprudenza romanail codex di pergamena veniva prodotto sia in edizioni economiche che in quelle di lusso.
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Research interest in tuberculosis and in developing and testing point of care diagnostics suitable for the developing world. More specifically, the reconstitution of the immune response during antiretroviral treatment, in order to identify correlates of protection including immune mechanisms that lead to reduced susceptibility to TBand pathogenesis such Album) the Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, TB-IRIS ; the biosignature of the TB infection spectrum, from latent infection to active disease; preventing TB infection in HIV infected people more effectively; and the pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis and pericarditis.
Skip to main content. Jr World Championship: Ganemat wins silver in women's skeet. Terence Lewis reveals how he studied waltz to choreograph 'Lagaan' song. Taliban's ability to use Pak as a sanctuary in 20 yrs major issue: US generals. Smriti Mandhana becomes first Indian woman to hit Test ton in Australia.
Environment Ministry embarks on elephant reserves, corridor mapping. Chennithala steps down from plum posts in Cong-backed bodies in Kerala. Different opposition every day is challenging but rewarding too: CSK's Hazlewood. Hopefully that will make you feel better. Yes, I think I'll do that. Thanks a lot, Dave. Oh, you're welcome. Get well soon! You poor thing!
B: i realiy hope you feel better soon. Use the ideas below to act out your own dialogue. Follow the plan. Ask what's wrong. Ask when it came on. Say what you think the problem is. Give your advice.
Describe problem. Tell A. Say A could be right. Agree to Pressure - Kamchatka - The Search Goes On (CD advice. Thank A. I sometimes help my mum with housework. Listening to my favourite song makes me feel happy. What do you expect to read? By the time I got to the community centre, I was already five minutes late. When I finally found the room, a diverse group of young and old people were wandering around, pointing at each other and 5 giggling. It was one of the most ridiculous sights I had ever seen, but I shouldn't have been so taken aback, because this was a laughter yoga class!
Laughter yoga was started in in Mumbai, India, by Madan Kataria, a doctor. He had been looking into the 10 medical advantages of laughter and found that a great way to relieve stress was to laugh for 15 to 20 minutes every day. He formed a public 'laughter club' in a park and before long, a new movement combining laughter and special breathing exercises had been created. The 15 idea took off and, unbelievably, there are now around 5, laughter yoga classes taking place around the world!
At first, I was very sceptical. How could a bit of silly giggling feel like exercise? Our instructor Maryanne 20 explained that laughter reduces stress, improves circulation, tones muscles and even helps the respiratory system.
In fact, just the simple act of smiling, she said, tricks our bodies into thinking we are happy as it releases stress-fighting hormones called endorphins. As warm-up exercises, Maryanne asked us to walk around the room while chanting and clapping.
Afterwards, we lay on the floor, kicking our legs in the 30 air, and to my surprise I started to snigger. Then we pretended to joke with old friends and drink from imaginary tea cups. The room was soon full of chuckles, giggles and roars of laughter. I have to admit the laughter was contagious. It was as if a weight had been lifted from my shoulders.
Before we left, Maryanne gave us a list of 'easy actions for joyful living' and told us to try out some before the next class.
The list included simple things such as meditation, helping a neighbour, learning a new skill or even 40 stopping to admire a wild flower or looking up at a starry night sky.
That should be easy enough, I thought! Firstly, I tried meditating for 10 minutes each morning. I sat silently with my eyes closed and focused on my breathing while observing my thoughts. At first that was 45 hard! But as the week progressed, the clutter in my mind was eventually replaced with a feeling of peace and calm.
The next thing I did was offer to help an elderly neighbour carry her shopping bags home. She 50 appreciated it and I felt lighter in my step afterwards. Friday was a terrible day.! Taking advice from Maryanne's list, at the end of the day I wrote 55 down three positive things that happened that day. My friend brought me a warm drink when I arrived at the college. I listened to my favourite music on the journey home.
My brother promised to look at my car for me the next day. So, try it out for yourself - you don't have to go to a laughter yoga class. You can smile and laugh more, look for small ways to bring joy to 65 others and yourself and focus on the positive things in your life not the negative. I don't think you'll regret it! C relieved that she found the room. D amused and surprised by the group's behaviour.
C improve public health. D have a career change. C more uncertain about it. D sure that she was right. C avoid feeling unhappy about her day. D try a few ideas from Maryanne's list.
A She realised that simple actions can make you happier. C She realised how much she had to be happy about. D She started to appreciate those around her more. Ways to laugh g Choose the correct word. Check in your dictionaries. In three minutes write a few sentences expressing your opinion on the topic. Reading 2 How could someone cope with stress?
Study skills Matching headings to paragraphs Read the headings carefully. Read the text and try to find words synonymous to the key words in the headings. This will help you do the task.
Two headings are extra. Do you feel that your schedule is too busy or that there is too much expected of you? And you are not aione. She finishes lessons at 4 pm and gets the bus home and spends two hours doing homework. On Monday and Thursday evenings she has Spanish classes and on Wednesdays and Fridays she goes to music lessons, Lately, she has been having headaches and finds it hard to concentrate in class. So why is stress so widespread and what can be done to prevent it or lessen its effects?
It can be caused by anything from a real physical threat such as bullying to a simple fear of making a presentation in front of the class and can affect how you think, feel, behave and how your body functions. When the body feels stressed, it produces hormones to make you more alert and capable of handling the situation.
These hormones speed up the metabolism by increasing breathing and heart rate and raising blood pressure. It keeps you on your toes and improves your performance. However, frequent stress causes the nervous system to remain on alert and to produce excessive amounts of stress hormones. This can have an adverse effect on your performance, leave you feeling tired and weakened and eventually cause health problems such as acne, high blood pressure, depression or other diseases.
Obviously, managing stress should be on everyone's mind. ThiSj leads to reduced stress levels, a feeling of well-being and contributes to. So, take time to relax, but instead of slouching on the couch why don't you get out there and make yourself feel good?
Leo is supposed to meet us outside the hospital. I advise I'm to take the antibiotics for ten days. I have to Overpopulation is likely to be a serious problem in the next century. It is possible; it might be Technology is bound to improve the way doctors treat illnesses. It's very possible Why don't we order a salad instead?
How about? Shall we? People are likely to live much longer in the future. Complete the table. Use your notes to tell the class. Do you think they are the same for older people? What do you think is a good way to deal with stress? Write a few sentences then tell the class.
Do some Internet research about how to best deal with stress. Present your findings to your partner or the class. What solution does each sketch show? I A classmate of yours is suffering from exam Album) stress.
Look at each of the tips for avoiding I exam stress and talk to each other about j how important each is. Then decide which I two tips are the most helpful. How important is each tip? Which two tips will help the most? Which pair pair 1 or pair 2 ; take turns to let each other speak? I don't think Inviting speakers What do you think?
What about? Recommending It might not be a good idea to I would n't recommend What language do they use to: give opinions? Where did her accident happen? How do they feel? A Upset that they can't eat out. C Worried about eating nuts by mistake. Why doesn't Millie want to wear contact lenses? A She thinks they are expensive. C She thinks they are too much trouble. When will she see the doctor? What does he suggest? A See a doctor.
How did you calm down and resolve the situation? The last time I got angry was when my brother used my mobile phone without asking first. Which of the tips have you tried?
Did they work? Which will you try in the future? Use the key words: anger management. Report your tips back to the class. It is a mixture of physical and emotional feelings in which a big Anger isn't a bad thing in itself and has actually helped the human race adapt and evolve.
However, if it isn't managed properly, problems can The expression of anger can lead to verbal abuse or physical aggression and can have a very negative Uncontrolled anger can It is vital that we learn to manage our anger without trying to ignore it. Exercise is a great If you think you are getting angry, it is a good time to go for a brisk walk, run or cycle, or even to kick a ball against a wall. Physical activity releases endorphins; feel-good hormones that help you relax.
Closing your eyes and imagining all When you feel at ease you can come back to the problem and try to solve it in a relaxed manner. Don't let your anger get the better of you, but Answer the questions.
You work at the j sports centre and the manager has asked you I to write a report making some suggestions, j Write your report. The aim of this report is to suggest ways of improving Malvern Sports Centre in order to attract more young people.
The decor and some of the facilities are in need of being updated. Firstly, I would recommend that the centre be redecorated in a modern style and that the changing facilities be refurbished, in particular the showers. Doing this would make the centre more attractive to young people. Although the centre offers a good range of activities, they are not appealing enough to young people. More exciting sports like indoor climbing and trampolining would probably attract more interest.
Furthermore, the sports hall is underused. The addition of modern fitness classes, such as Zumba, would undoubtedly be popular with younger customers. The centre is not very well-known in the community. For this reason, I would suggest an open day.
This would allow young people to try out the facilities before joining. In addition, we could advertise events on social media sites.
This is an inexpensive way of attracting younger customers. All in all, I feel that improved decor and facilities, new activities and better publicity would certainly attract more young people to the centre. Which heading do they match?
What will its purpose be? What style will you write in? You do some voluntary work at a local children's hospital and the director wants to make it a more pleasant place for the children. You have been asked by the director to write a report making some suggestions. Write your report words. I would suggest that an indoor playroom be made.
Plan Para 1: state purpose and content of report Paras discuss each point under subheadings Para 5: summarise main points, give your opinion and recommendations!
Read the rest of the text to find out. Peta Bee reports on the exercise routine that is packing New York's gyms. The creators of this craze -Dr Paul Jurvis and Lashaun Dale - believe that exercise can benefit from being very chaotic - changing from one workout to the next. The idea is to get fitter and smarter at the same time. The class begins with some ordinary running or skipping before becoming a lot more disorderly!
In one of the tasks, 30 helium balloons are released up to the ceiling and then class participants have to get them down as quickly as they can.
It doesn't matter how they do it because it all works their bodies and minds. Participants breathe through drinking straws while doing abdominal exercises and a yellow flag signals that class members must sprint to one side of the room and stand on a letter X on the floor.
Participants also have to make a 'human ladder' in which two rows of people each hold a weighted body bar' so that someone can climb across the top. Many of the moves are unlike anything even the most enthusiastic gym goer will have seen or tried before. If you always do the same workout, your mind and your muscles get bored. Sport is different; you never know in which direction you will have to turn, jump or run. This class attempts to copy that. At the start of the newly launched class I took part in, there were 15 participants but an hour later there were just 5.
The rest had dropped out, exhausted. At times. I thought my lungs were going to explode. But just when I thought I would have to join the dropouts, something strange happened -1 actually began to enjoy myself, maybe even enough to go along to the next class! According to health But not only that, it is also being called a 'super food. So if you You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend, Danny. I'm on the school football team. At the moment, we're training every day after school because we have a big match very soon.
What sports do you play at your school and which is your favourite? What type of sport do you prefer - team sports or individual sports? How do you keep fit? Write him a letter and answer his 3 questions. When Andy meets Sarah, he A asks if she's been doing anything new.
C invites her to the community centre. Andy says that capoeira players A don't hurt their opponents. C are talented musicians. Andy says that beginners need to A know another martial art. C take time to learn the basics. Andy started capoeira classes because A he wanted to work out more.
C his friends had recommended it. The community centre A stopped people joining capoeira classes. C has two capoeira classes a week.
Sarah says that she A will go with Andy on Monday. C will sign up for Thursday's class. What points does the student make? Does the student successfully complete all parts of the task? Does the student talk for the correct amount of time? What questions does the examiner ask? Do you agree with the student's answers? Then brainstorm words related to the topic.
The gym hasn't been doing very well recently and the manager has asked you to write a report suggesting ways to attract new members. What suggestions could you make for improvements? Use the answers in Ex. Collocations Fill in: splitting, kick, deep, wide, tone, breath, personal, heart, laughter, portions, life.
Read through Module 3 and mark the statements T true or F false. Then write a similar quiz of your own. Acupuncture is a health 5 The Kakahi Falls is in New problem. Insomnia means difficulty 6 Laughter yoga was started in in falling asleep. You need a harness and an 7 Stress can lead to high blood elastic rope to go CaniX racing Aerial yoga helps to tone our 8 Endorphins make a person feel muscles.
Which could: boost the immune system? Read again and match headings A-H with paragraphs Find out: what it's called, how it can benefit your health. How do we form the passive? When do we use it? Rewrite the sentences in the passive.
Canadians celebrate Winterlude every year in Ottawa. People rent sleighs to go along the canal. Artists have created amazing ice sculptures. They will set off fireworks in the evening. Visitors can attend an outdoor venue concert this year. They held the festival over the first three weeks of February.
It's a festival people should not miss. They say the Mayor will attend the parade. Use the lists to present the festivals to the class as live TV commentaries. Which festival would you like to visit most?
Which of these jobs can you see in the pictures? Where are you? What can you see? How do you feel? That's exactly what professional trapeze artist Chun Mee Sing did when she was just five years old. Taken by her aunt to see a travelling circus which passed through her small town in southwest China early in the spring ofChun Mee became Pressure - Kamchatka - The Search Goes On (CD fixated on the idea of becoming a travelling performer.
Her talent at the school was such that she was expected to go onto great things. At Today, Chun Mee is one of their star acts, flying through the air; defying gravity; living the dream she imagined as a little girl.
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