For Glass this series demonstrated a new start, hence the title: "What I was looking for was a way of combining harmonic progression with the rhythmic structure I had been developing, to produce a new overall structure. I'd taken everything out with my early works and it was now time to decide just what I wanted to put in—a process that would occupy me for several years to come.
Composed in spring to fall of in close collaboration with Wilson, Glass's first opera was first premiered in summer at the Festival d'Avignonand in November of the same year to a mixed and partly enthusiastic reaction from the audience at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. JohnsonGlass's and Wilson's essentially plotless opera was conceived as a " metaphorical look at Albert Einstein : scientist, humanist, amateur musician—and the man whose theories Einstein on the Beach was followed by further music for projects by the theatre group Mabou Mines such as Dressed like an Eggand again music for plays and adaptations from prose by Samuel Beckettsuch as The Lost OnesCascandoMercier and Camier The piece demonstrates Glass's turn to more traditional models: the composer added a conclusion to an open-structured piece which "can be interpreted as a sign that he [had] abandoned the radical non-narrative, undramatic approaches of his early period", as the pianist Steffen Schleiermacher points out.
In SpringGlass received a commission from the Netherlands Opera as well as a Rockefeller Foundation grant which "marked the end of his need to earn money from non-musical employment".
For SatyagrahaGlass worked in close collaboration with two " SoHo friends": the writer Constance deJong, who provided the libretto, and the set designer Robert Israel. This piece was in other ways a turning point for Glass, as it was his first work since scored for symphony orchestra, even if the most prominent parts were still reserved for solo voices and chorus.
Shortly after completing the score in AugustGlass met the conductor Dennis Russell Davieswhom he helped prepare for performances in Germany using a piano-four-hands version of the score ; together they started to plan another opera, to be premiered at the Stuttgart State Opera.
While planning a third part of his "Portrait Trilogy", Glass turned to smaller music theatre projects such as the non-narrative Madrigal Opera for six voices and violin and viola,and The Photographera biographic study on the photographer Eadweard Muybridge Glass also continued to write for the orchestra with the score of Koyaanisqatsi Godfrey Reggio— The "Portrait Trilogy" was completed with Akhnaten —, premiered ina vocal and orchestral composition sung in AkkadianBiblical Hebrewand Ancient Egyptian.
In addition, this opera featured an actor reciting ancient Egyptian texts in the language of the audience.
Akhnaten was commissioned by the Stuttgart Opera in a production designed by Achim Freyer. Pruit Igoe - Philip Glass - Koyaanisqatsi (CD premiered simultaneously at the Houston Opera in a production directed by David Freeman and designed by Peter Sellars. At the time of the commission, the Stuttgart Opera House was undergoing renovation, necessitating the use of a nearby playhouse with a smaller orchestra pit. Upon learning this, Glass and conductor Dennis Russell Davies visited the playhouse, placing music stands around the pit to determine how many players the pit could accommodate.
The two found they could not fit a full orchestra in the pit. Glass decided to eliminate the violins, which had the effect of "giving the orchestra a low, dark sound that came to characterize the piece and suited the subject very well". Glass again collaborated with Robert Wilson on another opera, the CIVIL warSpremiered inwhich also functioned as the final part "the Rome section of Wilson's epic work by the same name, originally planned for an "international arts festival that would accompany the Olympic Games in Los Angeles".
Glass's and Wilson's opera includes musical settings of Latin texts by the 1st-century-Roman playwright Seneca and allusions to the music of Giuseppe Verdi and from the American Civil Warfeaturing the 19th century figures Giuseppe Garibaldi and Robert E. Lee as characters. In the mids, Glass produced "works in different media at an extraordinarily rapid pace". Beckett vehemently disapproved of the production of Endgame at the American Repertory Theater Cambridge, Massachusettswhich featured JoAnne Akalaitis 's direction and Glass's Prelude for timpani and double bass, but in the end, he authorized the music for Companyfour short, intimate pieces for string quartet that were played in the intervals of the dramatization.
This composition was initially regarded by the composer as a piece of Gebrauchsmusik 'music for use' —"like salt and pepper This interest in writing for the string quartet and the string orchestra led to a chamber and orchestral film score for Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters Paul Schrader—85which Glass recently described as his "musical turning point" that developed his "technique of film scoring in a very special way".
In taking this direction his chamber and orchestral works were also written in a more and more traditional and lyrical style. In these works, Glass often employs old musical forms such as the chaconne and the passacaglia —for instance in Satyagraha the Violin Concerto No. A series of orchestral works originally composed for the concert hall commenced with the 3-movement Violin Concerto No.
This work was commissioned by the American Composers Orchestra and written for and in close collaboration with the violinist Paul Zukofsky and the conductor Dennis Russel Davies, who since then has encouraged the composer to write numerous orchestral pieces.
The Concerto is dedicated to the memory of Glass's father: "His favorite form was the violin concerto, and so I grew up listening to the Mendelssohnthe Paganinithe Brahms concertos. So when I decided to write a violin concerto, I wanted to write one that my father would have liked. This turn to orchestral music was continued with a symphonic trilogy of "portraits of nature", commissioned by the Cleveland Orchestrathe Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestraand the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra : The LightThe Canyonand Itaipu While composing for symphonic ensembles, Glass also composed music for piano, with the cycle of five movements titled Metamorphosis adapted from music for a theatrical adaptation of Franz Kafka 's The Metamorphosisand for the Errol Morris film The Thin Blue Line In the same year Glass met the poet Allen Ginsberg by chance in a book store in the East Village of New York City, and they immediately "decided on the spot to do something together, reached for one of Allen's books and chose Wichita Vortex Sutra ",  a piece for reciter and piano which in turn developed into a music theatre piece for singers and ensemble, Hydrogen Jukebox Glass also returned to chamber music; he composed two String Quartets No.
This work originated in one of many theater music collaborations with the director JoAnne Akalaitiswho originally asked the Gambian musician Foday Musa Suso "to do the score [for Jean Genet 's "The Screens"] in collaboration with a western composer". Music from "The Screens" is on occasion a touring piece for Glass and Suso one set of tours also included percussionist Yousif Sheronickand individual pieces found its way to the repertoire of Glass and the cellist Wendy Sutter. Another collaboration was a collaborative recording project with Ravi Shankarinitiated by Peter Baumann a member of the band Tangerine Dreamwhich resulted in the album Passages In the late s and early s, Glass's projects also included two highly prestigious opera commissions based on the life of explorers:.
The Voyagewith a libretto by David Henry Hwangwas commissioned by the Metropolitan Opera for the th anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus ; and White Raven [ fr ; pt ]about Vasco da Gamaa collaboration with Robert Wilson and composed for the Album) of the World Fair in Lisbon.
Especially in The Voyagethe composer "explore[d] new territory", with its "newly arching lyricism", " Sibelian starkness and sweep", and "dark, brooding tone After these operas, Glass began working on a symphonic cycle, commissioned by the conductor Dennis Russell Davies, who told Glass at the time: "I'm not going to let you He referred to the music of HoneggerMilhaudand Villa-Lobos as possible models for his symphony. In the four movements of his Third Symphony, Glass treats a piece string orchestra as an extended chamber ensemble.
In the third movement, Glass re-uses the chaconne as a formal device; one commentator characterized Glass's symphony as one of the composer's "most tautly unified works". Its six movements are symphonic reworkings of themes by Glass, David Bowie, and Brian Eno from their album "Heroes"; as in other works by the composer, it is also a hybrid work and exists in two versions: one for the concert hall, and another, shorter one for dance, choreographed by Twyla Tharp.
Another commission by Dennis Russell Davies was a second series for piano, the Etudes for Piano dedicated to Davies as well as the production designer Achim Freyer ; the complete first set of ten Etudes has been recorded and performed by Glass himself. Bruce Brubaker and Dennis Russell Davies have each recorded the original set of six. Most of the Etudes are composed in the post-minimalist and increasingly lyrical style of the times: "Within the framework of a concise form, Glass explores possible sonorities ranging from typically Baroque passagework to Romantically tinged moods".
In the same way the triptych is also a musical homage to the work of the group of French composers associated with Cocteau, Les Six and especially to Glass's teacher Darius Milhaudas well as to various 18th-century composers such as Gluck and Bach whose music featured as an essential part of the films by Cocteau. One can only suspect that Orpheus' grief must have resembled the composer's own", K.
Robert Schwartz suggests. The characters are depicted by both singers and dancers. The scoring of the opera evokes Bach's Concerto for Four Harpsichordsbut in another way also "the snow, which falls relentlessly throughout the opera Here time stands still.
There is only music, and the movement of children through space" Glass. In the late s and early s, Glass's lyrical and romantic styles peaked with a variety of projects: operas, theatre and film scores Martin Scorsese 's Kundun, Godfrey Reggio 's Naqoyqatsi, and Stephen Daldry 's The Hours, a series of five concerts, and three symphonies centered on orchestra-singer and orchestra-chorus interplay.
Two symphonies, Symphony No. The operatic Symphony No. Besides writing for the concert hall, Glass continued his ongoing operatic series with adaptions from literary texts: The Marriages of Zones 3, 4 and 5  story-libretto by Doris LessingIn the Penal Colonyafter the story by Franz Kafkaand the chamber opera The Sound of a Voicewith David Henry Hwangwhich features the Pipaperformed by Wu Man at its premiere.
Glass also collaborated again with the co-author of Einstein on the BeachRobert Wilsonon Monsters of Graceand created a biographic opera on the life of astronomer Galileo Galilei In the early s, Glass started a series of five concerti with the Tirol Concerto for Piano and Orchestrapremiered by Dennis Russell Davies Album) conductor and soloistand the Concerto Fantasy for Two Timpanists and Orchestrafor the timpanist Jonathan Haas. The Concerto for Cello and Orchestra had its premiere performance in Beijing, featuring cellist Julian Lloyd Webber ; it was composed in celebration of his fiftieth birthday.
The concerto celebrates the pioneers' trek across North America, and the second movement features a duet for piano and Native American flute. Waiting for the Barbariansan opera from J. Coetzee 's novel with the libretto by Christopher Hamptonhad its premiere performance in September Russell Davies notes.
Two months after the premiere of this opera, in NovemberGlass's Symphony No. After three symphonies for voices and orchestra, this piece was a return to purely orchestral and abstract composition; like previous works written for the conductor Dennis Russell Davies the Concerto Grosso and the Symphony No.
Critic Allan Kozinn described the symphony's chromaticism as more extreme, more fluid, and its themes and textures as continually changing, morphing without repetition, and praised the symphony's "unpredictable orchestration", pointing out the "beautiful flute and harp variation in the melancholy second movement". The musical material is cut from familiar fabric, but it's striking that Pruit Igoe - Philip Glass - Koyaanisqatsi (CD composer forgoes the expected bustling conclusion and instead delves into a mood of deepening twilight and unending night.
The 45 minutes choral work is based on the writings of Indian spiritual leader Ramakrishnawhich seem "to have genuinely inspired and revived the composer out of his old formulas to write something fresh", as one critic remarked, whereas another noted "The musical style breaks little new ground for Glass, except for the glorious Handelian ending A cello suite, composed for the cellist Wendy Sutter, Songs and Poems for Solo Cello —was equally lauded by critics.
It was described by Lisa Hirsch as "a major work, The work, which premiered in June in Toronto, is a piece for seven instruments and a vocal quartet, and contains recorded spoken word performances by Cohen and imagery from his collection. Appomattoxan opera surrounding the events at the end of the American Civil War, was commissioned by the San Francisco Opera and premiered on October 5, As in Waiting for the BarbariansGlass collaborated with the writer Christopher Hampton, and as with the preceding opera and Symphony No.
He's definitely developed more skill as an orchestrator, in his ability to conceive melodies and harmonic structures for specific instrumental groups. Apart from this large-scale opera, Glass added a work to his catalogue of theater music inand continuing—after a gap of twenty years—to write music for the dramatic work of Samuel Beckett. Glass's work for this production was described by The New York Times as "icy, repetitive music that comes closest to piercing the heart".
Penduluma one-movement piece for violin and pianoa second Suite of cello pieces for Wendy Sutterand Partita for solo violin for violinist Tim Fainfirst performance of the complete workare recent entries in the series. Other works for the theater were a score for Euripides ' The Bacchaedirected by JoAnne Akalaitisand Kepleryet another operatic biography of a scientist or explorer.
The opera is based on the life of 17th century astronomer Johannes Kepleragainst the background of the Thirty Years' Warwith a libretto compiled from Kepler's texts and poems by his contemporary Andreas Gryphius. LA Times critic Mark Swed and others described the work as " oratorio -like"; Swed pointed out the work is Glass's "most chromatic, complex, psychological score" and "the orchestra dominates I was struck by the muted, glowing colors, the character of many orchestral solos and the poignant emphasis on bass instruments".
In andGlass returned to the concerto genre. Violin Concerto No. Glass also donated a short work, Brazilto the video game Chimewhich was released on February 3, The festival promotes a broad range of art forms, including experimental sound, noise, dance, theatre, visual art, performance and new media. In AugustGlass presented a series of music, dance, and theater performances as part of the Days and Nights Festival. Other works completed since include Symphony No.
Glass published his memoir, Words Without Musicin Commissioned by the orchestra, the work is based on David Bowie's album Lodgerit completes Glass's trilogy of symphonies based on Bowie's Berlin Trilogy of albums. In collaboration with stage auteur, performer and co-director with Kirsty Housley Phelim McDermotthe composed the score for the new work Tao of Glasswhich premiered at the Manchester International Festival  before touring to the Perth Festival.
Glass describes himself as a "classicist", pointing out he is trained in harmony and counterpoint and studied such composers as Franz SchubertJohann Sebastian Bachand Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with Nadia Boulanger. Early admirers of his minimalism include musicians Brian Eno and David Bowie.
Glass had begun using the Farfisa portable organ out of convenience,  and he has used it in concert. InGlass and his producer Kurt Munkacsi and artist Don Christensen founded the Orange Mountain Music company, dedicated to "establishing the recording legacy of Philip Glass" and, to date, have released sixty albums of Glass's music.
Glass has composed many film scores, starting with the orchestral score for Koyaanisqatsiand continuing with two biopics, Mishima: A Life in Four Chaptersresulting in the String Quartet No.
In he composed and conducted the score for director Harrison Engle's minimalist comedy short, Railroaded, played by the Philip Glass Ensemble. This was one of his earliest film efforts. In he composed the theme for Reggio 's short independent film Evidence. He made a cameo appearance—briefly visible performing at the piano—in Peter Weir 's The Truman Showwhich uses music from PowaqqatsiAnima Mundi and Mishimaas well as three original tracks by Glass.
In the s, he also composed scores for Bent and the thriller Candyman and its sequel, Candyman: Farewell to the Fleshplus a film adaptation of Joseph Conrad 's The Secret Agent Inhe finished a new soundtrack for the film Dracula. The Hours earned him a second Academy Award nomination. In the mids Glass provided the scores to films such as Secret WindowNeverwasThe Illusionist and Notes on a Scandalgarnering his third Academy Award nomination for the latter.
InGlass composed original theme music for Transcendent Manabout the life and ideas of Ray Kurzweil by filmmaker Barry Ptolemy. In the s Glass's work from the s again became known to wider public through various media. In his Concerto for Violin and Orchestra was featured in the surreal French thriller, La Moustacheproviding a tone intentionally incongruous to the banality of the movie's plot.
As there was no formal script, Fricke shot whatever he felt would "look good on film". A grey paper backdrop was displayed in Times Square, and Fricke stood 10 feet 3 m back with the camera.
People walking by started posing for the camera, thinking it was a still cameraand several shots from the setup ended up in the film. Reggio was not on location in Times Square when Fricke shot the footage and thought the idea of shooting portraits of people was "foolish". Upon viewing the footage, Reggio decided to devote an entire section of the film to portraits. The footage was processed with a special chemical to enhance the film's shadows and details, as all footage was shot only with existing lighting.
The unedited footage was screened in Santa Fe, New Mexico, but Fricke said it was "boring as hell" and there were "not that many good shots". While Fricke was working in Los Angeles, he edited the footage into a minute reel, but "without regard for message or political content".
I just shot anything that I thought would look good on film. Shooting bums, as well as buildings, didn't matter. It was all the same from my standpoint. I just shot the form of things. The IRE was continuously receiving funding and wanted to continue the project inusing 35 mm film. The two-week shoot included aerial footage taken from an airplane using a hand-held camera and ground footage taken using a tripod.
The first aerial footage was too "shaky", so additional footage was taken from a camera mounted onto the airplane. Footage of the blackout was filmed in Harlem and the South Bronx, and the film was desaturated to match the appearance of the 16 mm footage.
Reggio and Fricke came across time-lapse footage in "some low-visibility commercial work". They felt such footage was "the language [they] were missing", and collectively decided to implement time-lapse as a major part of the film to create "an experience of acceleration". For the time-lapse footage, Fricke purchased a Mitchell camera,  and built a motor with an intervalometerwhich was used to precisely move the camera between frames. The system was powered by a gel cell battery that lasted for twelve hours, which enabled Fricke to shoot without the use of a generator.
Fricke wanted the footage to "look normal" and not contain any "gimmicky" special effects. The first take was shot throughout the day for twelve hours, then the film was rewound and the same scene was shot at night for twenty minutes. Fricke and his focus pullerRobert Hill, filmed at the airport every day for two weeks. In addition to footage shot by Fricke, some of the footage of people and traffic in New York City was shot by cinematographer Hilary Harris. During post-production, Reggio was introduced to Harris' Organismwhich predominately features time-lapse footage of New York City streets.
Reggio was impressed with Harris' work and subsequently hired him to work on Koyaanisqatsi. While Reggio was working on post-production at the Samuel Goldwyn Studio in he met film director Francis Ford Coppola through an associate from Zoetrope StudiosCoppola's production company. Before shooting The Outsiders and Rumble FishCoppola requested to see Koyaanisqatsiand Reggio arranged a private screening shortly after its completion.
The film's soundtrack by Philip Glass was released inafter the release of the film. Even though the amount of music in the film was almost as long as the film itself, the soundtrack release was only 46 minutes long and featured only samples of the film's pieces. InGlass rerecorded the album through Nonesuch Records with a length of 73 minutes, 21 seconds. The rerecording of the album featured two additional tracks from the film, as well as extended versions of previous tracks from the original album.
The album was released as a Philip Glass album titled Koyaanisqatsirather than a soundtrack to the film. The music has become so popular that the Philip Glass Ensemble has toured the world, playing the music for Koyaanisqatsi live in front of the movie screen. The opening for "The Grid" begins with slow sustained notes on brass instruments. The music builds in speed and dynamics throughout the piece's 21 minutes. When the piece is at its fastest, it is characterized by a synthesizer playing the piece's bass line ostinato.
Glass's music for the film is a highly recognizable example of the minimalist school of composition, which is characterized by heavily repeated figures, simple structures, and a tonal although not in the traditional common practice sense of the word harmonic language.
Glass was one of the first composers to employ minimalism in film scoring, Album) the way for many future composers of that style. It ultimately was not used in the film; Glass released it as part of his album Glassworks in It's been that everyone: politics, education, things of the financial structure, the nation state structure, language, the culture, religion, all of that exists within the host of technology.
So it's not the effect ofit's that everything exists within [technology]. It's not that we use technology, we live technology. Technology has become as ubiquitous as the air we breathe In the score by Philip Glassthe word "Koyaanisqatsi" is chanted at the beginning and end of the film in an "otherworldly"  dark, sepulchral basso profondo by singer Albert de Ruiter over a solemn, four-bar organ-passacaglia bassline.
Three Hopi prophecies sung by a choral ensemble during the latter part of the "Prophecies" movement are translated just prior to the end credits:. Moreover, amongst the consultants to the director are listed such names as Jeffrey Lew, T. Triumph Films offered to distribute the film, but Reggio turned down the offer as he wanted to work with a smaller company so he could be more involved with the release. He chose Island Alive as the distributor, a company newly formed in by Chris Blackwell of Island Records and Koyaanisqatsi was the company's first release.
Select theaters distributed a pamphlet that defined the title and the Hopi prophecies sung in the film, as well as a copy of the soundtrack from Island Records. The first theatrical run featured four-track Dolby Stereo sound, while later runs featured monaural sound. Additional releases in select cities throughout the United States continued in Septemberbeginning with a release in New York City on September In mid-October, Koyaanisqatsi was released onto 40 to 50 screens throughout the country.
The rights to Koyaanisqatsi were passed through various multinational entertainment companies, which eventually prevented a home video release. IRE enforced their legal and contractual rights by creating a federal court lawsuit. Both films were available in a two-disc box set. On January 13,a Blu-ray version screen ratio was released in Germany. The release features 5. The website's critical consensus reads " Koyaanisqatsi combines striking visuals and a brilliant score to produce a viewing experience that manages to be formally daring as well as purely entertaining.
Koyaanisqatsi is followed by the sequels Powaqqatsi and Naqoyqatsi and the shorts Anima Mundi and Evidence. Naqoyqatsi was completed after a lengthy delay caused by funding problems and premiered in the United States on October 18, The film's cinematographer Ron Fricke went on to direct Barakaa pure cinema movie that is often compared to Koyaanisqatsi.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Institute for Regional Education American Zoetrope. Release date. Running time. Play media. The section shown depicts several tall, shadowed figures standing near a taller figure adorned with a crown.
The next image is a close-up of a Saturn V rocket during its launch Apollo The film fades into a shot of a desolate desert landscape. From there, it progresses to footage of various natural phenomena such as waves and clouds. The film's introduction to human involvement in the environment is a low aerial shot of choppy water, cutting to a similar shot of rows of cultivated flowers. After aerial views of monumental rock formations partly drowned by the artificial Lake Powellwe see a large mining truck causing billows of black dust.
This is followed by shots of power lines in the desert. Humankind's continued involvement in the environment is depicted through images of mining operations, oil fields, the Navajo Generating Stationthe Glen Canyon Damand atomic bomb detonations in a desert.
Following the atomic bomb detonations, the next sequence begins with a shot of sunbathers on a beach, then pans to the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station in the background.
Shots of taxiing United Boeing aircraft and traffic patterns during rush hour on a freeway are followed by a shot of a large parking lot. This is followed with stock footage of Soviet tanks lined up in rows and a military aircraft, and an aircraft carrier. Time-lapse photography of shadows of clouds are seen moving across the skyscrapers, followed by shots of various housing projects in disrepair, including footage of the decay and demolition of the Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St.
The sequence ends with footage of the destruction of large buildings. A time-lapse shot of a crowd of people who appear to be waiting in a line is followed by shots of people walking along streets in slow motion.
The next sequence begins with shots of buildings and a shot of a sunset reflected in the glass of a skyscraper. The sequence uses time-lapse photography of the activity of modern life. The events captured in this sequence involve people interacting with modern technology. The first shots are traffic patterns as seen from skyscrapers at night. This is followed by an extreme time-lapse close-up of the moon passing behind a skyscraper. The next shots are closer shots of cars on a highway.
The sun rises over the city and we see people hurrying to work. The film shows at regular speed the operation of machines packaging food. People are shown sorting mailsewing jeansmanufacturing televisions and doing other jobs with the use of modern technology. A shot of hot dogs being sent down rows of conveyors is followed by a shot of people moving up escalators.
The frenetic speed and pace of the cuts and music do not slow as shots of modern leisure are shown. People eat, play, shop and work at the same speed. The sequence begins to come full circle as the manufacture of cars in an assembly-line factory is shown. More shots of highway traffic are shown, this time in daylight. The film shows the movement of cars, shopping cartsand televisions on an assembly line, and elevators moving from first-person perspective.
The film then shows clips from various television shows being channel surfed in fast motion. The film, in slow motion, then shows several people reacting to being candidly filmed on the street. The camera stays on them until the moment when they acknowledge its presence by looking directly at it. The sequence then shows cars moving much faster than they were moving before. Pictures of microchips and satellite photography of metropolitan cities are shown, comparing the lay of each of them.
Various shots of people are seen from all walks of modern life, from beggars to debutantes. The final sequence shows footage of a rocket lifting off, only to end up exploding after a few seconds. Editing suggests that there is only one rocket, while in fact two different events were used: The first batch of footage shows a Saturn V lifting off Apollo 11followed by footage of the May explosion of the first Atlas-Centaur. The camera follows a flaming rocket engine and a white vapor trail or smoke against a blue sky as the debris plummets toward the ground.
The film concludes with another shot of desert rock art similar to the image at the beginning. Epilogue shows the translation of the titular Hopi word and of the prophecies sung in the last part of the soundtrack.
As the credits roll, multiple sounds from news programs and telephone calls are played. The campaign involved invasions of privacy and the use Album) technology to control behavior. Instead of making public service announcements, which Reggio felt "had no visibility," advertising spots were purchased for television, radio, newspapers, and billboards. The television advertisements aired during prime-time programming and became so popular that viewers would call the television stations to learn when the next advertisement would be aired.
Fricke insisted to Reggio that the money could be used to produce a film, which led to the production of Koyaanisqatsi. Fricke and Reggio chose to shoot unscripted footage and edit it into an hour-long film.
Louis, Missouri. As there was no formal script, Fricke shot whatever he felt would "look good on film". A grey paper backdrop was displayed in Times Square, and Fricke stood 10 feet 3 m back with the camera. People walking by started posing for the camera, thinking it was a still cameraand several shots from the setup ended up in the film.
Reggio was not on location in Times Square when Fricke shot the footage and thought the idea of shooting portraits of people was "foolish". Upon viewing the footage, Reggio decided to devote an entire section of the film to portraits. The footage was processed with a special chemical to enhance the film's shadows and details, as all footage was shot only with existing lighting. The unedited footage was screened in Santa Fe, New Mexico, but Fricke said it was "boring as hell" and there were "not that many good shots".
While Fricke was working in Los Angeles, he edited the footage into a minute reel, but "without regard for message or political content". I just shot anything that I thought would look good on film. Shooting bums, as well as buildings, didn't matter.
It was all the same from my standpoint. I just shot the form of things. The IRE was continuously receiving funding and wanted to continue the project inusing 35 mm film. The two-week shoot included aerial footage taken from an airplane using a hand-held camera and ground footage taken using a tripod.
The first aerial footage was too "shaky", so additional footage was taken from a camera mounted onto the airplane. Footage of the blackout was filmed in Harlem and the South Bronx, and the film was desaturated to match the appearance of the 16 mm footage.
Reggio and Fricke came across time-lapse footage in "some low-visibility commercial work". They felt such footage was "the language [they] were missing", and collectively decided to implement time-lapse as a major part of the film to create "an experience of acceleration".
For the time-lapse footage, Fricke purchased a Mitchell camera,  and built a motor with an intervalometerwhich was used to precisely move the camera between frames. The system was powered by a gel cell battery that lasted for twelve hours, which enabled Fricke to shoot without the use of a generator.
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