Il vocabolo originariamente significava anche " corteccia ", ma visto che era un materiale usato per scrivere testi in libro scribuntur litteraePlautoin seguito per estensione la parola ha assunto il significato di " opera letteraria ".

Se ne deduce che le prime scritture delle lingue indoeuropee possano esser state intagliate su legno di faggio. La scrittura, un sistema di segni durevoli che permette di trasmettere e conservare le informazioni, ha cominciato a svilupparsi tra il VII e il IV millennio a.

Quando i sistemi di scrittura vennero inventati, furono utilizzati quei materiali che permettevano la registrazione di informazioni sotto forma scritta: pietraargillacorteccia d'albero, lamiere di metallo. La scrittura alfabetica emerse in Egitto circa 5. Gli antichi Egizi erano soliti scrivere sul papirouna pianta coltivata lungo il fiume Nilo. Inizialmente i termini non erano separati l'uno dall'altro scriptura continua e non c'era punteggiatura.

I testi venivano scritti da destra a sinistra, da sinistra a destra, e anche in modo che le linee alternate si leggessero in direzioni opposte. Le tavolette di cera erano assicelle di legno ricoperte da uno strato abbastanza spesso di cera che veniva incisa da uno stilo. Avevano il vantaggio di essere riutilizzabili: la cera poteva essere fusa e riformare una "pagina bianca". Erano utilizzate anche le cortecce di albero, come per esempio quelle della Tiliae altri materiali consimili.

La parola greca per papiro come materiale di scrittura biblion e libro biblos proviene dal porto fenicio di Bibloda dove si esportava il papiro verso la Grecia. Tomus fu usato dai latini con lo stesso significato di volumen vedi sotto anche la spiegazione di Isidoro di Siviglia.

Che fossero fatti di papiro, pergamena o carta, i rotoli furono la forma libraria dominante della cultura ellenisticaromanacinese ed ebraica. Gli autori cristiani potrebbero anche aver voluto distinguere i loro scritti dai testi pagani scritti su rotoli. La storia del libro continua a svilupparsi con la graduale transizione dal rotolo al codexspostandosi dal Vicino Oriente del II - II millennio a.

Fino al II secolo d. All'arrivo del Medioevocirca mezzo millennio dopo, i codici - di foggia e costruzione in tutto simili al libro moderno - rimpiazzarono il rotolo e furono composti principalmente di pergamena. Quattro son troppi? Anche nei suoi distici, Marziale continua a citare il codex: un anno prima del suddetto, una raccolta di distici viene pubblicata con lo scopo di accompagnare donativi.

Questa mole composta da numerosi fogli contiene quindici libri poetici del Nasone». Dal II secolo a. Nel mondo antico non godette di molta fortuna a causa del prezzo elevato rispetto a quello del papiro. Il libro in forma di rotolo consisteva in fogli preparati da fibre di papiro phylire disposte in uno strato orizzontale lo strato che poi riceveva la scrittura sovrapposto ad uno strato verticale la faccia opposta.

La scrittura era effettuata su colonne, generalmente sul lato del papiro che presentava le fibre orizzontali. Non si hanno molte testimonianze sui rotoli di pergamena tuttavia la loro forma era simile a quella dei libri in papiro. Gli inchiostri neri utilizzati erano a base di nerofumo e gomma arabica. Dal II secolo d. La vecchia forma libraria a rotolo scompare in ambito librario.

In forma notevolmente differente permane invece in ambito archivistico. Questo mezzo, permettendo l'accelerazione della produzione delle copie di testi contribuisce alla diffusione del libro e della cultura. Altri suoi distici rivelano che tra i regali fatti da Marziale c'erano copie di Virgiliodi Cicerone e Livio. Le parole di Marziale danno la distinta impressione che tali edizioni fossero qualcosa di recentemente introdotto.

Sono stati rinvenuti "taccuini" contenenti fino a dieci tavolette. Nel tempo, furono anche disponibili modelli di lusso fatti con tavolette di avorio invece che di legno. Ai romani va il merito di aver compiuto questo passo essenziale, e devono averlo fatto alcuni decenni prima della fine del I secolo d. Il grande vantaggio che offrivano rispetto ai rolli era la capienza, vantaggio che sorgeva dal fatto che la facciata esterna del rotolo era lasciata in bianco, vuota.

Il codice invece aveva scritte entrambe le facciate di ogni pagina, come in un libro moderno. La prima pagina porta il volto del poeta. I codici di cui parlava erano fatti di pergamena ; nei distici che accompagnavano il regalo di una copia di Omeroper esempio, Marziale la descrive come fatta di "cuoio con molte pieghe". Ma copie erano anche fatte di fogli di papiro. Quando i greci ed i romani disponevano solo del rotolo per scrivere libri, si preferiva usare il papiro piuttosto che la pergamena.

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