It starts with Clint outright dismissing the appeal of wielding Mjolnir, as he doesn't see a way to fit this power with his skillset. Than you have the Avengers being cold with Thor and worrying about Loki: they may have heard about Thor, but they know Loki and quite like him, which means they are not going to abandon the trickster for his brother when the latter shows himself. In the very first chapter, Coulson introduces himself as S. Because intellectually, Tony knows that Bucky was brainwashedand therefore cannot be held accountable at least, not completely.
The reason he reacted as he did in Siberia was because he literally just found out that not only were his parents murdered, and not in a car accident like he'd always believed, but that Steve had known about it and kept it from him for years.
Had he been told sooner, and had time to process the information, the fight in Siberia probably wouldn't have happened. It also helps that Tony doesn't know Bucky personally, whereas Steve had been his friend and teammate for years, making his betrayal hurt all the more.
Conversely, a number of Team Cap fics make it clear that, despite how he spoke in Siberia, Steve didn't know that it was Bucky that killed Tony's parents.
Steve suspected Bucky might have been responsible, but with the sheer number of hitmen HYDRA had at their disposal he had no way to narrow it down specifically. What he was referring to in Siberia was the fact that Tony's parents were assassinated at all, which he knew from Zola, and despite the fact that he should've told Tony as soon as he knew, between the sheer amount of chaos brought about by him having to stop Project Insight, Ultron and the Civil War, he simply never got around to telling him.
Second Chances Series : In the aftermath of Captain America: Civil WarTony Stark suffers from PTSD after nearly being killed by one of his friends and required multiple surgeries including implanting an artificial sternum to fully recover from his injuries.
Seeing his dead parents suddenly alive again ends up triggering a panic attack. When he asks what he wanted for his seventh birthday, Howard responds that he can't remember as it was ten years ago. When finally caught and tried, Natasha gets far less sympathy than any of the other members of "Team Captain America". Scott, Sam, and Bucky were all apologetic with the latter clearly not having been in his right mind while Steve was trying to protect a friend and Wanda wanted revenge on the man she held responsible for her family's deaths.
Natasha shows only cold detachment and apathy towards the lives she destroyed. Bucky Barnes is the only member of "Team Captain America" to avoid prison time but instead is sentenced to nine years in a psychiatric facility. He's not held responsible for his actions as the Winter Soldier due to the extenuating circumstances of his torture and brainwashing, and it's made clear that he had very little idea of what was happening during the Civil War.
When Wakanda helps prepare for the expected invasion by Thanos and his forces, their contributions are considerably less than some might expect.
While the nation is extremely technologically advanced, all of their technology runs on vibranium which they are running out of as centuries of mining have exhausted the meteor that originally struck their nation. The fanfic The Party shows the tragic and fatal consequences of Tony going to his crowded birthday party drunk and in his Iron Man Suit, and fighting Rhodey in Iron Man 2with multiple people dying as a result. But when he tells his Mad Scientist Samuel Sterns he wants his skeleton coated with vibranium, he's told it's not doable.
Even if the surgery could be performed without immediately killing him, and that's a big if, he'd die from strangling his bone Lets Pretend - Nat King Cole - The Immortal : Nat King Cole (Vinyl). And if that didn't kill him, his body's extreme internal temperature makes it likely the vibranium would melt inside him, rending the whole process meaningless. As a result, the events of each film are nightmares for Stark Industries legal and PR departments, especially with the various Avengers not helping at best and actively making things worse at worst.
Vision was only "alive" for an hour before getting thrown into battle against Ultron and his Chitauri, making him far less effective than he should be due to having only limited understanding of what his powers are or how they work note He puts up a mental barrier in Tony's mind to keep him from having a panic attack over facing the Chitauri again but admits he has no idea how he did so and cannot replicate the feat. Despite some of the Avengers treating the two as functionally interchangeable, from a political perspective, War Machine and Iron Man are almost complete opposites.
Tony Stark is one of the bigwigs and former CEO of one of the biggest multinational companies on the planet and a private citizen so he can often enter foreign countries if for no other reason than Stark Industries having holdings there. In such cases, he can use Plausible Deniability to claim he had his Iron Man armor in case of emergency and just happened to end up using it.
If he enters a foreign country in his armor without authorization, it's technically an act of war, just the same as if he flew a fighter jet in and started blowing things up in a fight. As a result, there's a lot of paperwork involved in non-emergency deployments for Rhodey and emergency deployments have almost as much paperwork, just with most of it done afterwards. While some of the agents who don't return to SHIELD do so out of bitterness, others are just too traumatized to carry on being secret agents.
Wakanda's isolationism means they don't have extradition treaties set up with any other country. So when T'Challa demands Wakanda have justice for T'Chaka's comaTony informs him that the rest of the world doesn't really care what a poor third world country wants.
After delivering a No-Holds-Barred Beatdown to Steve and Bucky in Siberia, Tony regrets taking things as far as he did, particularly with Bucky whom he knows isn't truly responsible for killing his parents.
Enough Rope : Despite Ross being a major JerkassTony still has to play nice with him due to the man's position. Spending hours semi-conscious in an abandoned Siberian bunker in a suit with no power leaves Tony badly frost bitten, to the extent his fingertips have to be amputated. When Wanda makes a remark about an interviewer asking Tony questions he doesn't want to answer, Scott informs her that interviews don't work like that.
Both parties meet up before hand to negotiate which questions can and cannot be asked and while some reporters might try to ask some unapproved questions, they know better than to try with Tony Stark who's not only rich and powerful, but is known to walk out on interviews if someone does. Brian Braddock carelessly uses the same phone for both his hero and civilian identity so quite a number of people knew he's Captain Britain, though MI13 kept his enemies from learning it.
Bodycams make it harder for both sides of an argument to falsify things. While various governments could string footage together to make heroes look bad, the heroes have their own copy to offer as counter-evidence.
Likewise, heroes might be protected against false accusations, but still have to watch their behavior since everything they do as heroes is being recorded at all times. While it is serious Paranoia Fuelthe fact that in this story Wanda sometimes messed with people's minds on accident is great news for Scott's and Clint's court case as it massively strengthens their defense if it can't be proven beyond a reasonable doubt that they were completely in their right minds during the battle at the Berlin airport.
Wanda being Easily Forgiven is torn apart by Laura Barton in argument with her husband, who points out that in actuality at least 3 Avengers Tony, Bruce, and Clint himself all were actively angry with her or at least were squeamish around her. She also points that Wanda's abilities made her a much bigger threat of manipulating the team than Tony. The whole fic intends to apply realistic geopolitical and political concerns to the events of Civil War.
For one thing, General Ross is not presented as the untouchable force he was in the film with it even noted in the intro notes that other countries' leaders wouldn't be enthusiastic about a warhawk American being granted so much authority, especially not one like Ross who's got several known abuses of power on his track record.
The Avengers besides Tony and Natasha not knowing about the Accords is addressed by them not following politics around them, since such a large and complex arrangement WOULD be discussed long enough for news to have trickled down beforehand. Other countries don't appreciate having vigilantes smashing around their property regardless of whether said vigilantes are doing "what's right. Since Melinda's fear is having to kill a child again, she hallucinates shooting Wanda, who feels the gunshot due to being in Melinda's mind at the time.
The result is both trying desperately to prevent Wanda's death from a gunshot wound that doesn't exist. When T'Challa brings Everett Ross to Shuri, asking if she can save him, she reminds her brother that she is a sixteen year old engineer who revolutionized their mining industry, when would she have time to study surgery. Instead she calls up a friend who is a surgeon. Don't come crawling back to me has Captain America with allies' presence in Wakanda revealed by a member of T'Challa's court, who posted the info on Facebook.
King or not, not everyone in Wakanda is going to accept the presence of not just foreigners but fugitives only on T'Challa's sayso. Not only is said scientist too busy with more important things to do it earlier, but the wings are very sophisticated and will need expensive materials to fix. Wanda's full role in the events of Age of Ultron is exposed to the public via Wiki Leaks.
This leads to her name being cursed to the point that her homeland revokes her citizenshipTony's being vindicated at least to a pointand T'Challa placing her under house arrest. General Ross is discharged for his antics instead of getting away with it all. It's pointed out that he had no actual authority over Stark and had no position in the UN to interfere with its going-ons how the movie said or implied he did. Unlike some stories where characters casually Lets Pretend - Nat King Cole - The Immortal : Nat King Cole (Vinyl) and understand the Accords, Scott Lang needs the help of a local lawyer who specializes in constitutional law to make sense of the document, which is almost two thousand pages long and filled with technical terms.
In Uncompromising Principlesthe amount of force taken to destroy the arc reactor in Tony's suit is such that his ribs are badly broken. Tony ends up dying from collapsed lungs before he can be rescued. Unlike some stories, where Steve sticks to his guns no matter what, upon learning he accidentally killed Tony, Steve is absolutely horrified and leaves Wakanda to turn himself in.
While T'Challa agrees to shelter Captain America and his allies, he makes it clear that he has no intention of letting them commit a PR disaster that'll bounce back on Wakandan soil. He bluntly tells them that if they leave the country and continue to defy the law, they will be no longer welcome in Wakanda. He also says that while he did aid them, he doesn't reject the Accords and that he merely opposed Ross' abuses. Set an Example shows that giving the rogue Avengers pardons in exchange for fighting Thanos sets a dangerous precedent.
Many mob enforcers, supervillains, and more get out of prison on the same deal due to their much better lawyers arguing that if the situation really is so dire as to let international terrorists go free in order to improve Earth's odds of survival, then others with similar capabilities should be offered the same chance. His fight against Captain America and the Winter Soldier shattered his ribs and even after they've fully healed, his ribcage isn't nearly as strong as it should be and can no longer handle the strain of piloting the Iron Man armor.
Scott running off to help Captain America has negative consequences for him. He is told that he's fired from his job and that contrary to Steve's assumption that Tony arranged it, it was all Dr. Pym's doing making it obvious he isn't happy about Scott's actions.
Nick Fury chews out Captain America for his actions, pointing out the obvious problem with Steve' attitude in that it disregards the geopolitical issues of having a largely American force of superheroes trampling around the world, that his actions have only succeeded in convincing enough politicians and civilians that the Accords are needed since Steve's posse have shown them they can't be trusted to operate unsupervised, and that his actions will impact other superpowered men and women.
He's told by Phil that he's been disavowed by the US military and that since he's ultimately a private citizen he's open to getting held accountable for his antics, via foreign governments hounding him or by way of lawsuits. SHIELD had files on every US intelligence agency which resulted in countless agents being captured on foreign soil and even years later, most of them still haven't been released.
The Sokovia Accords affect every super, not just the Avengers. Tony spends months reaching out to every enhanced individual and organization he can find all over the world in order to get their input on things. The way things are shaping up, so many enhanced will be involved that the opinions of the Avengers will be largely irrelevant.
After the Avengers admit they didn't bother staying informed about a deal to put them under the jurisdiction of the DIA, Natasha is informed that her idea of scrapping the deal and starting over isn't feasible because the DIA would have no reason to believe they'd honor a new deal after scrapping the old one without even trying to make it work.
Once the Avengers are put under the DIA's jurisdiction, they quickly notice Steve and the others traversing all over Europe looking for Bucky and promptly lock the Quinjet so it requires a mission authorization code to start. Like any business, the DIA doesn't allow employees to use company assets for personal reasons, regardless of who they are. Unfortunately, because Tony's solution for the past several years was to repress everything, he's initially more prone to episodes as he learns to cope.
Cho with treating Vision rather than put him on the front lines in an Iron Man armor, citing that he'd be more useful healing Vision. Calling You Out! In prompt 14, T'Challa is arrested in Korea for his destruction of private property and because he broke the Sokovia Accords which he just signed less than two weeks prior. Ross also informs him Okoye got shot when she climbed on top of Nakia's car while Nakia has a concussion and road burn from Klaue blowing up said car.
After Scott got away, Falcon reported the theft at the Avenger's Compound. Once it comes out why Scott stole from the compound and for whom, Hope and Hank are arrested as well. While the charges against Hope are dropped and Scott gets a plea deal since he wanted to call the Avengers in, Hank goes to prison since his justification amounts to hating the Stark name. In prompt 33, Everett Ross is suspended pending a review of every arrest he's made due to his claim that Bucky wouldn't be getting a lawyer after his arrest in Bucharest.
Even though he was lying and merely voicing his opinion that Bucky shouldn't get a lawyer, claiming an intention to violate someone's rights is not permitted by any law enforcement agency. Likewise, despite Sharon Carter bringing said claim to the head of the CIA's attention, she's still investigated under suspicion of having stolen Falcon's and Captain America's confiscated gear.
In a bonus prompt, Ivan Vanko dies early in Iron Man 2 when one of the other cars comes around the turn and crashes into him while he confronts Tony. I Hope You Have Unlimited Text Messaging : Steve keeping the secret about the deaths of Tony's parents was largely unintentional, as Tony comes to realize long after he had forgiven Steve for it.
Steve learned about the situation while in the middle of the crisis and dwelling on it wouldn't change the fact that Howard and Maria were dead.
Tony himself wouldn't have had much of a reaction to it either aside from sharing Steve's burning hatred for HYDRA, as his parents have been dead for years and he's long-since moved on from their deaths. As it wasn't really going to change much in the long run, Steve just never got around to telling him since there were more important things going on.
Also, Steve legitimately did not know whether or not Bucky was responsible. HYDRA has more than one assassin after all. He suspectedbut he didn't know for sure until Zemo showed the video to them in Siberia.
This is even more justified when he and Tony learn about Howard's prior assassination attempts nine in totalwhich were all perpetrated by HYDRA's other assassins. HYDRA didn't break out the Winter Soldier until they knew they couldn't leave Howard alive any longer — most likely because of the possibility of Howard recognizing him and breaking his programming. Howard's own previous assassination attempts are a case of this. As a founder of S. In fact, it's more surprising that all the previous attempts were orchestrated by HYDRA and not other parties who had just as much reason to want Howard dead.
The Sokovia Accords were conceived of and written when it was believed that the Avengers and a few select others were the only enhanced people on the planet. Thus, the sudden population explosion of Inhumans thanks to indirect exposure to the Terrigen Mists is something the Accords aren't prepared to deal with, and many are trying to take advantage of the situation to either exterminate enhanced humans or to weaponize them.
This situation validates Steve's fear about the Accords being abused by those in positions of power, and a running subplot of the fic is Tony's attempts to fix the situation by trying to lobby for the Accords to be amended.
This situation is also why, unlike canon, Tony outright refuses to have Peter reveal his identity, because, as a minor, it's still unclear whether the Accords should apply to him or not yet, even if he is an Avenger. Ross starts having his men stalk Laura Barton in hopes of fishing out the whereabouts of the rogue Avengers. As Tony and Steve both lampshade, there is no way in hell that is anywhere near the State Department's jurisdiction. Thus, Lets Pretend - Nat King Cole - The Immortal : Nat King Cole (Vinyl) he finally does pick up read: kidnap Laura, Tony has his team of lawyers rip him and the DOS to pieces to get her back, which takes only a couple of days.
It's also noted that enforcing the Accords aren't under the DOS's jurisdiction either, only negotiating them and making sure they're legal under the provisions of the Constitution and any other U. Ross actively seeking out the rogue Avengers falls squarely under the latter; ultimately, it's one of the nails that leads to his forced resignation in the latter half of the story. Desire Written in Olive Even though Wanda knows Tony is marrying her to keep people from realizing what she did in Sokovia particularly that she's former HYDRAit takes several months before the two aren't at each other's throats and a couple years for anything approaching love to develop between them.
Growing yourself to giant size when you've only done it once in a lab and passed out immediately? Bad idea. Scott is fine for a short period but quickly collapses and the following chapter reveals the damage to his body is extensive enough it's unlikely he'll ever walk again. The Spider Marvel Girl decides to go superheroing with almost zero training and is nearly killed by an attack from behind because she has no fighting experience and didn't realize her attacker wasn't unconscious yet.
Peter tells her both as a civilian and as Spider-man that she needs more training in both her powers and hand to hand combat before she can act as a superhero. Despite what Peter feared, SHIELD wasn't aware of Black Cat's identity, with Natasha mentioning that they Lets Pretend - Nat King Cole - The Immortal : Nat King Cole (Vinyl) have the resources to track down every thief and criminal who isn't a terrorist threat.
After learning what's going on, Clint advises Wanda to lay low until things blow over. To Trope or Not to Trope tackles various tropes for Team Iron Man and Anti Captain America fics, showing different outcomes from what is usually shown in the fics if the characters besides Tony were more in character.
Many of the snippets have Tony being called out for what amounts to blackmailing, and kidnapping a 15 year old teenager to fight in a battle in a different country as a Child Soldier. In one snippet Ultron tells the Avengers that Wanda is more responsible for his creation than Tony is. Clint notes that they have no reason to believe a murderous robot. A few snippets have Tony making a pass at Peter, a 15 year old. Peter's typical reactions are terror and disgust that an older man was lusting after him.
In stark contrast to a number of Team Iron Man-aligned stories, Tony proves incapable of singlehandedly defeating threats like Thanos, resulting in his death rather than the lopsided victory those stories like to portray. Which is subverted in some cases, the chapter where Thanos defeats him is quickly followed up with one where the rest of the Avengers show up just in time to save Tony, teaching him the value of teamwork.
Trying to amend a document after it has been ratified and Tony had already signed it, has little results. A number of the fics have Tony try to put the blame on Wanda for influencing him to create Ultron.
Wanda counters by pointing out that Tony had been working on Ultron for a long time before the Avengers hit Strucker's base, and he clearly wasn't under Wanda's influence when he convinced Bruce to use the scepter. The fact that Ultron also quoted something Tony said when he was buying the vibranium from Ulysses Klaue also makes him entirely Tony's creation.
In one of them, it's established that Wanda doesn't blame Tony for killing her parents. She blames his company for manufacturing the bombs that the United States military and NATO used to carpet bomb Sokovia A few fics have Tony facing legal consequences for violating the Accords to travel to Siberia.
Not What I Had In Mind : The Avengers destroying Hydra bases along with all of their technology and research means the authorities have nothing to charge the terrorists with and are forced to release them Several people make clear that eradicating terrorism is impossible.
Even if you kill every member of a terrorist organization, destroy all their resources, and publically denounce them, someone will read about the organization, agree with their ideals, and seek to spread said ideals through violent means.
As Steve Rogers's lawyer summarizes: terrorism is an idea taken to criminally violent extremes and you can't kill an idea. When Sam, Clint, Nat, and Steve are arrested in Romania, Tony mentions how ludicrously difficult it will be to find an unbiased jury for their trials since their actions both in saving the world from the Chitauri and in destroying a great deal of Romanian property while fighting Hydra means most will have a bias either for or against them.
Matt tells her to wait at the moment until Peter is a legal adult or until the Sokovia Accords are either revoked or revised. Since Peter is a minor it will get out he is Spider-Man if she reports it now and there are no statute of limitations for kidnapping a minor to another country.
Miriam Sharpe in It Wasn't Him remarks how learning that Wanda is the one who caused the Hulk's attack on Johannesburg didn't make the people living there hate the Hulk any less; instead they now hate Wanda as well as the Hulk. Knowing someone wasn't in their right mind when they destroyed your home and killed your loved ones doesn't change how you feel emotionally, at least not right away. He often wondered why his birth mother didn't want him, then the Parkers died in a car crash, then his Aunt May falls sick and die, which left him deep anxiety about Parental Abandonment.
When his birth parents managed to obtain his custody back, Peter is still extremely insecure about their love for him, being physically clingy and trying to hide anything they might find distasteful such as his growing superpowers. Jessica and Matt have to work on their issues to be considered suitable parents for their son. To Matt, it means stopping being Daredevil unless for emergencies as juggling vigilantism, lawyering and caring for an emotionally needy child would only lead him to crash and burn, so he has to prioritize.
To Jess, it means finally going cold turkey on the alcohol and buying a new flat instead of sleeping in her work office which crazy people can break into. They're still rather stressed and unsure of their success in spite of their efforts. When Jessica argues nobody will give her Peter back if she tries to explain that Kilgrave mind-controlled her into abandoning him, Foggy merely presses for her to insist it was under duressand that she had very good reasons to fear Kilgrave would hurt her baby.
Dismissing Mind Rape accusations is logical, dismissing concerns of child abuse is much more difficult. In End Runwhen the fugitive Avengers mention that President Ellis has granted them all pardons for their actions in the "Civil War", Tony points out that said pardons are largely irrelevant as only Wanda broke any significant laws in the United States. For everyone else, their crimes were committed in Europe, Africa, and Russia, which the president has no jurisdiction over.
And while they were pardoned for past crimes, they're still trespassing on private property. Passion and Justice : When Shuri tries to help T'Challa by negotiating with the United Nations in his stead, she's told in no uncertain terms that as a minor, her word and her signature are not considered legally binding, meaning she can't negotiate with foreign powers on Wakanda's behalf.
Tony points out that while Wakanda has the vast majority of Vibranium in the world, a meteor striking Earth would cause fragments to be spread far and wide. A number of fics, such as One National Hero to Another and Passion and Justice mentioned above, point out that many scientists would take a rather dim view of Wakandan scientists over the fact they never submit any research for peer review. Not only is non-reviewed work seen as less official, but it paints them as taking from the rest of the scientific community without giving anything back.
Realpolitk : Much like Passion and Justice above brings up Shuri's status as a minor as a concern as to whether her word is legally binding. La parola italiana libro deriva dal latino liber.
Il vocabolo originariamente significava anche " corteccia ", ma visto che era un materiale usato per scrivere testi in libro scribuntur litteraePlautoin seguito per estensione la parola ha assunto il significato di " opera letteraria ". Se ne deduce che le prime scritture delle lingue indoeuropee possano esser state intagliate su legno di faggio.
La scrittura, un sistema di segni durevoli che permette di trasmettere e conservare le informazioni, ha cominciato a svilupparsi tra il VII e il IV millennio a.
Quando i sistemi di scrittura vennero inventati, furono utilizzati quei materiali che permettevano la registrazione di informazioni sotto forma scritta: pietraargillacorteccia d'albero, lamiere di metallo.
La scrittura alfabetica emerse in Egitto circa 5. Gli antichi Egizi erano soliti scrivere sul papirouna pianta coltivata lungo il fiume Nilo. Inizialmente i termini non erano separati l'uno dall'altro scriptura continua e non c'era punteggiatura.
I testi venivano scritti da destra a sinistra, da sinistra a destra, e anche in modo che le linee alternate si leggessero in direzioni opposte. Le tavolette di cera erano assicelle di legno ricoperte da uno strato abbastanza spesso di cera che veniva incisa da uno stilo.
Avevano il vantaggio di essere riutilizzabili: la cera poteva essere fusa e riformare una "pagina bianca". Erano utilizzate anche le cortecce di albero, come per esempio quelle della Tiliae altri materiali consimili. La parola greca per papiro come materiale di scrittura biblion e libro biblos proviene dal porto fenicio di Bibloda dove si esportava il papiro verso la Grecia.
Tomus fu usato dai latini con lo stesso significato di volumen vedi sotto anche la spiegazione di Isidoro di Siviglia. Che fossero fatti di papiro, pergamena o carta, i rotoli furono la forma libraria dominante della cultura ellenisticaromanacinese ed ebraica.
Gli autori cristiani potrebbero anche aver voluto distinguere i loro scritti dai testi pagani scritti su rotoli. La storia del libro continua a svilupparsi con la graduale transizione dal rotolo al codexspostandosi dal Vicino Oriente del II - II millennio a.
Fino al II secolo d. All'arrivo del Medioevocirca mezzo millennio dopo, i codici - di foggia e costruzione in tutto simili al libro moderno - rimpiazzarono il rotolo e furono composti principalmente di pergamena.
Quattro son troppi? Anche nei suoi distici, Marziale continua a citare il codex: un anno prima del suddetto, una raccolta di distici viene pubblicata con lo scopo di accompagnare donativi. Questa mole composta da numerosi fogli contiene quindici libri poetici del Nasone». Dal II secolo a. Nel mondo antico non godette di molta fortuna a causa del prezzo elevato rispetto a quello del papiro. Il libro in forma di rotolo consisteva in fogli preparati da fibre di papiro phylire disposte in uno strato orizzontale lo strato che poi riceveva la scrittura sovrapposto ad uno strato verticale la faccia opposta.
La scrittura era effettuata su colonne, generalmente sul lato del papiro che presentava le fibre orizzontali. Non si hanno molte testimonianze sui rotoli di pergamena tuttavia la loro forma era simile a quella dei libri in papiro. Gli inchiostri neri utilizzati erano a base di nerofumo e gomma arabica. Dal II secolo d.
La vecchia forma libraria a rotolo scompare in ambito librario. In forma notevolmente differente permane invece in ambito archivistico. Questo mezzo, permettendo l'accelerazione della produzione delle copie di testi contribuisce alla diffusione del libro e della cultura. Altri suoi distici rivelano che tra i regali fatti da Marziale c'erano copie di Virgiliodi Cicerone e Livio. Le parole di Marziale danno la distinta impressione che tali edizioni fossero qualcosa di recentemente introdotto.
Sono stati rinvenuti "taccuini" contenenti fino a dieci tavolette. Nel tempo, furono anche disponibili modelli di lusso fatti con tavolette di avorio invece che di legno. Ai romani va il merito di aver compiuto questo passo essenziale, e devono averlo fatto alcuni decenni prima della fine del I secolo d. Il grande vantaggio che offrivano rispetto ai rolli era la capienza, vantaggio che sorgeva dal fatto che la facciata esterna del rotolo era lasciata in bianco, vuota.
Il codice invece aveva scritte entrambe le facciate di ogni pagina, come in un libro moderno. La prima pagina porta il volto del poeta. I codici di cui parlava erano fatti di pergamena ; nei distici che accompagnavano il regalo di una copia di Omeroper esempio, Marziale la descrive come fatta di "cuoio con molte pieghe". Ma copie erano anche fatte di fogli di papiro.
Quando i greci ed i romani disponevano solo del rotolo per scrivere libri, si preferiva usare il papiro piuttosto che la pergamena.
I Lets Pretend - Nat King Cole - The Immortal : Nat King Cole (Vinyl) egiziani ci permettono di tracciare il graduale rimpiazzo del rotolo da parte del codice. Fece la sua comparsa in Egitto non molto dopo il tempo di Marziale, nel II secolo d. Il suo debutto fu modesto. A tutt'oggi sono stati rinvenuti 1. Browse Apple Music. Entrancing beats for tunneling deeper into the mind. Browse Our Picks See All.
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