In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.
All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centers for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials.
The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. New York: Macmillan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. GINN, S. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. The Counselor in a Changing World.
The framework is a comprehensive developmental guidance model, which has as its philosophy developing stu- dent abilities, and internal and external assets. It has been refined through two intensive Summer Institutes for school counselors, and work meetings. Everyone involved was committed to the idea of changing the way things are done to how they should be done in order to do what is best for the students of Georgia.
The Framework is divided into three sections: The curriculum itself with the appropriate grade level standards and competen- cies. Counselor supported QCC standards, which should be used in implementing the grade level competencies. African Virtual University 47 A sample program evaluation, which should be reviewed on a regular basis as a check to determine what has been accomplished and what needs to be improved.
This framework also stresses promotion of student success and high achievement for all students by altering the philosophical thrust of guidance programs. Guidance would be defined as the help all students receive from parents, teachers, counselors, and others to assist them in making appropriate educational and career choices. Counseling would be defined as the help some students receive from credentialed professionals to help them overcome personal and social problems which interfere with learning.
Our emphasis is placed on helping all students, rather than selected counseling for some students. The objective in developing this framework is to provide guidance counselors with competencies to enable students to be prepared to meet the career demands of the new centur y. The core convictions guiding this objective are: Every student deserves to be surrounded by a culture of high expectations and a rich array of options for the future.
Every student deserves rich educational and career guidance in order to define the choices to the options he or she chooses. Every student deserves rich curriculum, instruction, and services to be able to realize the options developed through the guidance process. An important component of this curriculum is the idea that guidance counselors, in implementing the guidance and counseling program, assume more of a responsibility for student growth and thus become more ac- countable in that process.
The activities that guidance counselors conduct should have a link to defined student competencies. Guidance and Counseling is a process of helping people by assisting them in ma- king decisions and changing behavior. As students achieve developmental competencies, their perceptions of themselves and their opportunities should become better defined. In summary, guidance counselors should be actively involved in school impro- vement, curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
This Curriculum Guide is intended to be used as a model framework only; it can be adapted to fit the needs of the individual school or system with the purpose of providing a structure. African Virtual University 48 As the need for accountability increases, guidance counselors should review their programs on a continuous basis. This is the rationale for a guidance curriculum person: the need for improved student achievement for all students.
Introduction Students are challenged daily to make decisions in an environment fraught with tension and uncertainty. Faced with social, economic, and cultural issues to a degree not experienced by previous generations, students must have proactive choices to nurture the potential they each have to become successful learners.
The Guidance and Counseling Program, as an educational program, creates options for students to develop and emphasize strategies which enhance this potential. Purpose The primary purpose of the Georgia Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program is to assist local systems in developing, implementing, and evaluating comprehensive and developmental guidance programs K It is developmental by design and includes sequential acti- vities organized and implemented by certified school counselors with the support of teachers, administrators, students, and parents.
The Guidance and Counseling Program includes: Guidance curriculum activities that all students, in the same ways, master the skills and knowledge of the educational objectives. Individual planning activities that enable students in different ways to master skills and knowledge. Responsive services activities done with some students to help them overcome social and emotional problems. System support management and support tasks that make the educational system work.
Rationale Viewing guidance and counseling from a statewide perspective, several challen- ges emerge that reflect a need to refocus the energy of guidance and counseling efforts: 1. There is a strong misconception about the role of guidance and coun- seling. Guidance and counseling cannot be seen as the exception rather than the rule. A better job must be done in communicating the added value of guidance and counseling to the entire educational community of parents, business, and community leaders.
The ability to work with the whole spectrum of integrated student services. The development of a program with various components with specific content, goals, and prevention steps is needed to reach the identified needs of all students.
Results accountability. The Guidance and Counseling Program places emphasis on indivi- dual development. Because self-development is primarily intangible in nature, many activities within the programs are difficult to measure. Guidance personnel should create and implement a process to demons- trate that the guidance and counseling program does affect growth and development, and results in life-long learning.
Asset building. All individuals possess, within themselves, a level of commitment, motivation, values, and skills. The specialized training and unique skills of counselors should be manifested in a program that is designed and delivered to address and build upon these internal assets in a positive and proactive manner. This will lay the foundation for developing the competencies and self-efficacy youth need to make healthy and produc- tive choices throughout their lives.
Local school systems should work to transform these challenges into opportunities for the Guidance and Counseling Program. Having a mission that describes what the guidance and counseling program does and how it gets done clarifies the role of the program and guidance personnel.
Local systems can develop a mission statement along these lines: Mission The Georgia Grade School Guidance and Counseling Program provides a com- prehensive, developmental Kindergarten through Album) K curriculum which is student-focused. Collaboration with parents, educators, and the community provides students with career and educational opportunities to ensure post-secondary success in a diverse and technological society. Philosophy Of all of the educational programs, the Guidance and Counseling Program clearly speaks to the inner growth and development of learners.
Principles that govern the operation and delivery of the program should convey the essence of asset building and development, Album) emotionally and academically, in all learners. Be available to all learners at each educational level. Be evaluated for success. Utilize technological and community resources effectively. Be delivered equitably.
Benefits of a Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program Prepares students to be productive, contributing citizens with a strong work ethic.
Provides continuity for smooth and effective levels of transition from kindergarten through post-secondary. Enhances and encourages a model for life-long learning with emphasis on appropriate decision making and communication skills in a diverse and technological society.
Encourages students to learn positive human relationships as a means of managing conflicts. Develops a written school-based guidance plan based on learners. African Virtual University 51 Implements an individual plan of action. Counseling Facilitates and implements delivery of counseling services in areas of self-knowledge, educational and occupational exploration, and career planning to facilitate academic achievement.
Adheres to established system policies and procedures in scheduling appointments and obtaining parental permission.
Schedules time to provide opportunities for counseling. Counsels learners individually by actively listening, identifying and defining issues, discussing alternative solutions, and formulating a plan of action.
Leads counseling or support groups for learners experiencing similar issues. Evaluates effectiveness of group counseling and makes revisions as necessary. Collaborates with school staff in planning and scheduling guidance activities. Conducts classroom guidance activities related to identified goals and objecti- ves. Gathers and evaluates data to determine effectiveness of classroom guidance and student comprehension, making revisions where necessary. Provides information to students, parents, and teachers on student test scores.
Provides information to students and parents on career planning. Leads skill-building groups in student self-knowledge. We may have even concluded that we come from dysfunctional family backgrounds ourselves. The term itself may be overused and perhaps misused but it gets the point across. Indeed past pain in relationships can be circumvented to some degree by learning to change that which does not promote health and happiness.
So far, so good, but what exactly needs change and what does not? What particular points of strength did our families teach us?
What are the hallmarks of families that seem to flourish in an atmosphere of warmth and ease, even under stressful life events? I must admit, I have an avid interest in studying successes of all kinds. I like stories that relate ways people made things work, regardless of the subject.
No, really! I wanted to know what physical manifestations occur in our bodies when a person administering a medication truly believed in its power to promote healing.
By indulging in this avenue of thought I came to experience the paradox of defining things from a predisposed, but invisible assumption: i. Sometimes our attempt to study health is limited by our unconscious or conscious biases. Paying attention to positive elements in human relationship results in more than the sum of its parts.
By studying the characteristics of what contributes to health and well being in family systems, you may find yourself thinking differently about your own family experience. Expectations that reside in past negative experience can cause you to miss opportunities for positive interaction with family members. Wondering what will bring joy or soothing, instead of reliving irritations which presuppose past negative attitudes can constructively alter relationships.
It is not all inclusive, nor does it express one way to be as a family. These are simply observations from a variety of family cultures that have been identified as having positive impact on growth and adaptation. Each family is its own unique culture. But all families, no matter where they are, do basically the same thing. Families exist to nurture the growth and development of their members. Each family is like a garden.
The characteristics below are some of the nutrients you may wish to consider in tilling the soil. Characteristics of healthy family relationships Orientation: Family atmosphere is influenced by a belief in helping each other, acknowled- ging human needs for reassurance and support, and viewing mistakes as human.
Family members know that human needs are satisfied through relationship, and when children grow and leave home their independence is continually dependent on other community systems.
While these members strive for competence, they know they do not solely control outcome. They believe they can make a difference through their own efforts and influence their success in the world, but know also that success is a result of variables beyond their complete control. When members make mistakes, from a child dropping a spoon on the floor to damaging the family car, members believe there may be numerous factors involved, and refrain from jumping to blaming or criticizing statements precipitously.
When errors in judgment are made especially by children or adolescents, members seek to help produce change through warmth in relating versus over controlling. This does not mean that clear and defined consequences are not invoked. Instead, a learning orientation to life with emo- tional availability to members helps ease distress. For example: an 18 month old throwing a spoon on the floor could be seen as trying to disrupt or take control, which would assign the child more negative motive, than if the parent were to also consider tiredness and natural developmental challenges of this age, which would be seen as normal and inevitable testing of limits.
Ask yourself: What were the basic attitudes, beliefs or philosophy that influenced you in your childhood family? Were limits set neutrally, without emotional rejection? Or was emotional rejection and judgment part or all of the response to mistakes or misbehavior?
Was this a family in which people strived for perfection but accepted the inevi- tability of mistakes? Was the need for reassurance accepted? Was humor present? Could members show fear and uncertainty with expectation for reassurance and understanding?
You are not stuck in the past. Though it is natural to recreate a family atmosphere similar to the one you grew up in, once you are able to objectively identify elements you would like to change, your observations lead you to diffe- rent outcomes. And change takes time. Each incident or event you turn around builds on itself to create the future. Patience and compassion are your best allies to evaluate your present family orientation. Boundaries: Clear boundaries between family members means that the responsibilities of adults are clear and separate from the responsibilities of the growing child ren.
However democratic discussions are, parents retain appropriate de- cision-making relative to the age of the child. Naturally, as the child grows, the task of the family is to prepare the growing child or adolescent for making her or his own decisions in life. This is a gradual process. Boundaries also refers to the permeability of the nuclear family structure to the larger extended family and outside community.
A cohesive sense of family must be balanced with acceptance of outside persons and resources to be flexible and resilient. Children need to be able to trust in other adults and seek resources outside the family as they mature.
Ask yourself: Were the roles of parents and children clear in your childhood family? Did you learn to take responsibility as a child, gradually and make your own deci- sions? Was there too little guidance, or too much?
Did you enjoy an identity with your family, yet connect with outside members of the community and extended family for greater resources? How do you see your present family with respect to clarity of roles, expectation and responsibility?
Power and Intimacy: People are able to relate intimately when they feel they have equal power. This is because when we get frightened, two options are open to us: to relate through loving and caring to get our needs met, or to control others or a situation.
We may choose the power of love or the power of control. As children grow, they approach more equal control in the family, but certainly their feelings and thoughts should have some potential power in influencing decisions. Therefore, their attempts to relate carry some sense of power in their destiny. For couples, equal power in decision making is essential or intimacy suf- fers. She became a second class citizen in many families and everyone suffered because of the loss of intimacy inherent in such an arrangement.
This does not mean that one or the other partner cannot specialize in homemaking and the other in working outside the home for money. But it does mean that attention to equal consideration which leads to joint decisions promotes intimacy because those decisions were made in consideration of others.
Ask yourself: How were decisions made in my childhood family? If so, why? What are the answers to the above questions for your present family? Do all members have the same opinion as yourself? Do any members feel that their feelings do not matter when it comes to important decisions? Does your partner feel considered and respected with regard to feelings in conflict situations?
Honesty and freedom of expression: Members of a family are free to express themselves autonomouslyincluding different opinions or viewpoints if the family interactions support individuality. Discussions can be lively and even heated if it is basically acceptable for family members to have differences.
Love and caring is not withdrawn if people think differently about something. If ambivalence and uncertainty are accepted, as well as differences, families tend to enjoy an open atmosphere of honesty in relationship. Ask yourself: Did you experience pressure to lie or hide your true feelings or opi- nions in your childhood family? Were members open to differences in the family, or extremely threatened by feelings or ideas that conflicted with their own?
In your present family is honesty of feelings and opinions prevalent? Is individuality and expression of a range of feelings and opinions acceptable? Warmth, joy and humor: When there is joy and humor in relationships, people seek out the comfort of these interactions.
Humor Album) a very important role in family bonding. One aspect of mental health is the ability to laugh at ourselves good naturedly. This is not the same as laughing at, or making fun of someone at their expense. Instead, it is a shared experience of humor that lightens up the potential to take ourselves too seriously, and not be able to see the forest for the trees.
Humor often allows us to regain an overview or larger perspective that has been temporarily lost in the stress of everyday living. Many medical researchers have even linked it to physical health and recovery. Do you use humor to emotionally recover from alienated or polarized positions that you may find yourself immersed in with your partner or other family members?
Ask yourself: Can you remember good times, fun times and times of mirth and laughter that bonded you as a family in childhood? How often or how rare were these occurrences? Did you feel there was always someone you could talk Album) who cared about your welfare? In your present family, how much do you laugh together?
Have fun together? Seek out comfort and caring from one another? Organization and negotiating skill: A necessary aspect of family life is coordinating tasks, negotiating differences and being able to reach closure effectively. Negotiating skills include the ability to listen and make choices in what family members feel is a fair process.
In healthy families, this process does not get overly bogged down, although there is room for discussion, and parents alternate the role of coordinator between them.
Parents can take charge without being overly controlling. There tends to be a spirit of camaraderie and trust built up over the years so organization is relatively easy. This of course goes along with the other characteristics of healthy families, which includes clear boundaries and roles in the family. There is much to be done in running a family household, and everyone benefits when things that need to get done can be taken care of without undue stress and chaos.
Ask yourself: Were family tasks done with ease or with difficulty in your child- hood? Was there a reasonable amount of order in the household, or did weekends get bogged down in repeated attempts to organize basic family tasks? Could you count on things being done regularly and did you have regular family chores yourself or were things more haphazardly maintained? In your present family is there reasonable order which is sustained over long periods of time with appropriate flexibility or are there repeated arguments over basic chores and lack of clarity regarding how they will get done?
Whatever your answers, you can begin to observe whether you have transferred any ineffective patterns of organization onto your own family from childhood, and decide what kind of organization you want to have in your current home life. Value system: Part of the health and vibrancy of any family is also dealing with weaknesses, fears and stresses in the system itself.
Nobody is perfect and no system is perfect. But in healthy families, truth is accepted as not absolute. Different perspectives on reality are acceptable and people are basically good. These are two underlying beliefs. In addition to a basic positive view of humanity and of life in general, healthy families also deal with the inevitable losses that occur in the family life cycle.
To do so, families employ varying philosophies, religious or otherwise about the nature of life and what its all about. Healthy families include some larger concept of life that encompasses the fact that we all die.
Therefore we must inevitably be able to find some meaning in something that is a larger whole. The individual must be able to find significance in the contribution to something greater than the self. Whether in society, family, grandchildren, god, politics, or social change, an in- dividual must be able to find meaning that in some way transcends the ultimate loss of individual life.
Along the way, there are usually a number of naturally occurring deaths in the family that help prepare us, as we are faced with carrying that family member in some other form than the physical.
Ask yourself: What philosophy or values did your childhood family hold regarding life? Was there acceptance of different views of reality? What did your parents tell you about the nature of life, the meaning of family? How did your family handle the subject or experience of death? What kind of values do you want to pass on to your children? How do you discuss the meaning of life?
How do you handle the subject of death? Leaving childhood is necessary for becoming an adult. Letting go of our children as they leave home is necessary for their development as adults and for our growth as parents.
We all move on in life. Our connectedness remains but our relationships and how we depend on one another change. The ultimate loss however, our own death, brings us face to face with the pro- foundness of it all. Our last letting go is both inevitable and unknown. Songwriter Chris Williamson on her album, Live Dream, refers to her first awareness as a child, of her own death. Some joke! As we travel through the life cycle we continue to grow and learn. The older we get, the less Album) find we know.
Helping each other through this process of living the best way we can is what family is all about. It is my hope that the characteristics described in this article will help you as parents on your journey. Footnotes: 1. Beavers, R. Nurture 2. Support 3. Parental discipline 4.
Encouragement and growth of all family members 5. Spiritual well being of all members 6. Good communication 7. Problem solving skills 8. Meaningful participation of family members in activities outside the home. Characteristics of Productive Family Gilmore. Well-developed capacity for empathy and expression of affection 2. Free, open ,easy and spontaneous communication 3. Participation in leisure time activities 4. Parents devoted to each othernot competitive 5.
Have varied and broad interests-community, cultural, educational, etc. Do not get over-involved in outside activities 7. Parents organize and supervise allowances 9. Parents do not require their children to earn their own spending money Parents help their children acquire skills before they begin school Parents encourage and foster an interest in esthetic and athletics Parents readily help with homework Appreciation for each other 2.
Quality time 3. Communication 4. Commitment to family members 5. Religious orientation 6. Democratic parental power 3. Family closeness I versus we balance 4. Dealing with loss through appropriate grieving 8. Values and beliefs of basic goodness in humanity despite imperfection 9. Promotion of intimacy and autonomy Values differences among family members temperament, etc. Optimal Families Beavers, Album) systems view of the world at one with the environment and peo- ple.
Clear boundaries distinct roles with assertiveness. Contextual clarity clear communication. Equal power parent are leaders not dictators. Encouragement of autonomy. Skilled negotiation 8. Significant transcendent values project hope and deal with loss. Communicate and listen 2. Affirm and support one another 3. Teach respect for others 4. Develop a sense of trust 5. Have a sense of play and humor 6. Exhibit a sense of shared responsibility 7.
Teach a sense of right and wrong 8. Have a strong sense of family in which rituals and traditions abound 9. Have a balance of interaction among the members Have a shared religious core spirituality, not necessarily denominatio- nal Value service to others Foster family table time and conversation Share leisure time Admit and seek help with problems ego strength Characteristics of Effective Families Clark, A feeling of control over their lives.
A frequent communication of high expectations to children 3. A family dream of success in the future 4. Hard work as viewed as a key to success 5. An active, not sedentary lifestyle 6.
A total of hours per week of home-centered learning 7. The family viewed as a mutual support system and problem-solving unit 8. Clearly understood household rules, consistently enforced 9. Frequent contact with teachers Healthy family systems. Family Coordinator. Beavers, W. Healthy, midrange, and severely dysfunctional families. Walsh Ed. New York: Guilford Press. Clark, R. Curran, D. Traits of a healthy family. Minneapolis: Winston Press. Fine, M. The second handbook of parent education: Contemporary perspectives.
San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. Gilmore, J. Handout given in Family Dynamics course at Bos- ton University, Lewis, J. Otto, H.
What is a strong family? Marriage and Family Living, 10, Stinnett, N. In search of strong families. Stinnett, B. DeFrain Eds.
Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Secrets of happy families. Good Housekeeping, pp. There is diversity in their entry socio-economic and academic profiles. This diversity translates into a differential in their behavior patterns.
Yet our desire is to ensure that all are found worthy in learning and character to justify the degree or diploma given after the course of study. The need Beyond what can for support for the tertiary teacher is becoming increasingly important. This means that there guidance and is diversity in their entry socio-economic and academic profiles, which counseling that translates into a differential in their behavior patterns.
Attention was teachers could undertake as paid to the subject of guidance and counseling in light of this diversity indicated in this of quality higher education. There is the need to identify specialists module, more who are trained to offer guidance and counseling services. The higher complicated cases education teacher who is not trained should not be expected to offer should be referred such specialised services.
The variety of mix in preferences, interests and to trained cognitive competencies in the school system require that learners are professionals. Skip to main content. Customers also bought.
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Computational scientist with expertise in the development of Parallel and Hybrid model computer codes for application to chemical, life and biomedical sciences. Research is balanced between development of life science software and its application to biomedical projects where more recently the biomedical application has been cancer. Scientific interests are focused on the roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes.
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