Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes. Many B cells mature into what are called plasma cells that produce antibodies proteins necessary to fight off infections while other B cells mature into memory B cells. B-cells fight bacteria and viruses by making Y-shaped proteins called antibodies, which are specific to each pathogen and are able to lock onto the surface of an invading cell and mark it for destruction by other immune cells.
B-lymphocytes and Various - Highlights CD 19 (CD) have what may be described as a love-hate relationship. For example, B-cells sometimes inhibit tumor development by producing antibodies that may attack cancer cells or oncogenic viruses, such as human papillomavirus HPVVarious - Highlights CD 19 (CD) is responsible for most cervical, anal, penile and other reproductive cancers.
Other times, regulatory B-cells may release immune-suppressive cytokines that stifle an anti-tumor response. Also, B-cells are far more likely than T-cells to mutate into a liquid cancer such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL or B-cell lymphoma. CD19 protein appears early during B-cell maturation and is found during all stages of B-cell maturation, including plasma cells.
CD19 is useful as an additional marker of B cell lineage in leukemias and lymphomas. Expression of CD19 may be seen in some acute myeloid leukemias. CD19 is thus critical for the body to mount an optimal immune response. Follicular lymphoma, for example, has a lower CD19 level more frequently than any Various - Highlights CD 19 (CD) lymphoma subtypes. Very rare.
The most current experimental anti-CD19 immunotoxins in development work by exploiting the widespread presence of CD19 on B cells, with expression highly conserved in most neoplastic B cells, to direct treatment specifically towards B-cell cancers.
This suggests that CD19 and its downstream signaling may be a more attractive therapeutic target than initially suspected. CAR T cells are more effective than anti-CD19 immunotoxins because they can proliferate and remain in the body for a longer period of time. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicinewhich is in the public domain.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Various - Highlights CD 19 (CD) Center for Biotechnology Information, U. National Library of Medicine. A new member of the immunoglobulin Various - Highlights CD 19 (CD).
Journal of Immunology. PMID Clinical immunology: Principles and Practice 4th ed. ISBN OCLC January The Journal of Experimental Medicine. PMC S2CID Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, Boston, MA. Nature Reviews. Immunologic Research. Maintenance of follicular and marginal zone B cells requires CDdependent survival signals". Journal of Dermatological Science. Bibcode : Natur. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Nucleic Acids Research. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The New England Journal of Medicine.
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