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Throughout the s, TOP had many hits, and the band helped to make funk music a successful genre, with a broader audience. Notably, these afforded the group and the genre crossover success and greater recognition, yet such success escaped comparatively talented and moderately popular funk band peers.
The Temptationswho had previously helped to define the " Motown Sound" — a distinct blend of pop-soul — adopted this new psychedelic sound towards the end of the s as well.
The s were the era of highest mainstream visibility for funk music. Disco music owed a great deal to funk. Many early disco songs and performers came directly from funk-oriented backgrounds. InRose Royce scored a number-one hit with a purely dance-funk record, " Car Wash ". Even with the arrival of disco, funk became increasingly popular well into the early s. Funk music was also exported to Africa, and it melded with African singing and rhythms to form Afrobeat.
Nigerian musician Fela Kutiwho was heavily influenced by James Brown's music, is credited with creating the style and terming it "Afrobeat". Jazz-funk is a subgenre of jazz music characterized by a strong back beat grooveelectrified sounds  and an early prevalence of analog synthesizers. Similar genres include soul jazz and jazz fusionbut neither entirely overlap with jazz-funk.
In the s, at the same time that jazz musicians began to explore blending jazz with rock to create jazz fusionmajor jazz performers Wiley - Its The Music (Vinyl) to experiment with funk. Jazz-funk recordings typically used electric bass and electric piano in the rhythm section, in place of the double bass and acoustic piano that were typically used in jazz up till that point.
Pianist and bandleader Herbie Hancock was the first of many big jazz artists who embraced funk during the decade. Hancock's Headhunters band played the jazz-funk style.
The Headhunters' lineup and instrumentation, retaining only wind player Bennie Maupin from Hancock's previous sextet, reflected his new musical direction. He used percussionist Bill Summers in addition to a drummer. On the Corner was jazz trumpeter-composer Miles Davis  's seminal foray into jazz-funk. Like his previous works though, On the Corner was experimental. Davis stated that On the Corner was an attempt at reconnecting with the young black audience which had largely forsaken jazz for rock and funk.
While there is a discernible funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tanpura and tablasand Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape. Both sides of the record featured heavy funk drum and bass grooves, with the melodic parts snipped from hours of jams and mixed in the studio. Also cited as musical influences on the album by Davis were the contemporary composer Karlheinz Stockhausen.
In the s, largely as a reaction against what was seen as the over-indulgence of discomany of the core elements that formed the foundation of the P-Funk formula began to be usurped by electronic instrumentsdrum machines and synthesizers. Horn sections of saxophones and trumpets were replaced by synth keyboardsand the horns that remained were given simplified lines, and few horn solos were given to soloists.
Electronic drum machines such as the Roland TRLinn LM-1and Oberheim DMX began to replace the " funky drummers " of the past, and the slap and pop style of bass playing were often replaced by synth keyboard basslines. Lyrics of funk songs began to change from suggestive double entendres to more graphic and sexually explicit content.
Influenced by Kraftwerkthe Afroamerican rap DJ Afrika Bambaataa developed electro-funk, a minimalist machine-driven style of funk with his single " Planet Rock " in The single " Renegades of Funk " followed in Rick James was the first funk musician of the s to assume the funk mantle dominated by P-Funk in the s.
His album Street Songswith the singles "Give It to Me Baby" and " Super Freak ", resulted in James becoming a star, and paved the way for the future direction of explicitness in funk. Beginning in the late s, Prince used a stripped-down, dynamic instrumentation similar to James. However, Prince went on to have as much of an impact on the sound of funk as any one artist since Brown; he combined eroticism, technology, an increasing musical complexity, and an outrageous image and stage show to ultimately create music as ambitious and imaginative as P-Funk [ citation needed ].
Eventually, the band went on to define their own style of stripped-down funk based on tight musicianship and sexual themes. Similar to Prince, other bands emerged during the P-Funk era and began to incorporate uninhibited sexuality, dance-oriented themes, synthesizers and other electronic technologies to continue to craft funk hits. By the latter half of the s, pure funk had lost its commercial impact; however, pop artists from Michael Jackson to Culture Club often used funk beats.
Artists like Steve Arrington and Cameo still received major airplay and had huge global followings. Rock bands began adopting elements of funk into their sound, creating new combinations of " funk rock " and " funk metal ".
These bands later inspired the underground mids funkcore movement and current funk-inspired artists like OutkastMalina MoyeVan Huntand Gnarls Barkley. However, they never came close to reaching the commercial success of funk in its heyday—with the exception of Jamiroquai, whose album Travelling Without Moving sold about Meanwhile, in Australia and New Zealand, bands playing the pub circuit, such as SupergrooveSkunkhour and the Truthpreserved a more instrumental form of funk.
Since the late s hip hop artists have regularly sampled old funk tunes. James Brown is said to be the most sampled artist in the history of hip hop, while P-Funk is the second most sampled artist; samples of old Parliament and Funkadelic songs formed the basis of West Coast G-funk.
Original beats that feature funk-styled bass or rhythm guitar riffs are also not uncommon. Dre considered the progenitor of the G-funk genre has freely acknowledged to being heavily influenced by George Clinton's psychedelia: "Back in the 70s that's all people were doing: getting high, wearing Afrosbell-bottoms and listening to Parliament-Funkadelic.
That's why I called my album The Chronic and based my music and the concepts like I did: because his shit was a big influence on my music. Very big". George Clinton branded Digital Underground as " Sons of the P ", as their second full-length release is also titled.
A very strong funk album of DU's was their release Future Rhythm. Much of contemporary club dance music, drum and bass in particular has heavily sampled funk drum breaks. Funk is a major element of certain artists identified with the jam band scene of the late s and s. In the late s, the band Phish developed a live sound called "cow funk" aka "space funk"which consisted of extended danceable deep bass grooves, and often emphasized heavy "wah" pedal and other psychedelic effects from the guitar player and layered Clavinet from the keyboard player.
Lettucea band of Berklee College Of Music graduates, was formed in the late s as a pure-funk emergence was being felt through the jam band scene. Dumpstaphunk builds upon the New Orleans tradition of funk, with their gritty, low-ended grooves and soulful four-part vocals. Since the mids the nu-funk or funk revivalist scene, centered on the deep funk collectors scene, is producing new material influenced by the sounds of rare funk 45s.
These labels often release on 45 rpm records. Although specializing in music for rare funk DJs, there has been some crossover into the mainstream music industry, such as Sharon Jones' appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien. Those who mix acid jazzacid housetrip hopand other genres with funk include Tom Tom Club Brainticket Groove Armadaet al. During the s and early s, some punk funk bands such as Out Hud and Mongolian MonkFish performed in the indie rock scene.
Indie band Rilo Kileyin keeping with their tendency to explore a variety of rockish styles, incorporated funk into their song " The Moneymaker " on the album Under the Blacklight. Particle for instance, is part of a scene which combined the elements of digital music made with computers, synthesizers, and samples with analog instruments, sounds, and improvisational and compositional elements of funk.
From the early s onwards, funk has developed various subgenres. While George Clinton and the Parliament were making a harder variation of funk, bands such as Kool and the GangOhio Players and Earth, Wind and Fire were making disco-influenced funk music.
Many instruments may be incorporated into funk rock, but the overall sound is defined by a definitive bass or drum beat and electric guitars. The bass and drum rhythms are influenced by funk music but with more intensity, while the guitar can be funk-or-rock-influenced, usually with distortion.
The term "avant-funk" has been used to describe acts who combined funk with art rock 's concerns. Go-go originated in the Washington, D. Inspired by singers such as Chuck Brownthe "Godfather of Go-go", it is a blend of funk, rhythm and bluesand early hip hopwith a focus Wiley - Its The Music (Vinyl) lo-fi percussion instruments and in-person jamming in place of dance tracks.
As such, it is primarily a dance music with an emphasis on live audience call and response. Go-go rhythms are also incorporated into street percussion. Boogie or electro-funk is an electronic music mainly influenced by funk and post-disco. The minimalist approach of boogie, consisting of synthesizers and keyboards, helped to establish electro and house music.
Boogie, unlike electro, emphasizes the slapping techniques of bass guitar but also bass synthesizers. Electro funk is a hybrid of electronic music and funk. It essentially follows the same form as funk, and retains funk's characteristics, but is made entirely or partially with a use of electronic instruments such as the TR Vocoders or talkboxes were commonly implemented to transform the vocals.
The pioneering electro band Zapp commonly used such instruments in their music. Bootsy Collins also began to incorporate a more electronic sound on later solo albums. Funk metal sometimes typeset differently such as funk-metal is a fusion genre of music which emerged in the s, as part of the alternative metal movement. It typically incorporates elements of funk and heavy metal often thrash metaland in some cases other styles, such as punk and experimental music.
It features hard-driving heavy metal guitar riffs, the pounding bass rhythms characteristic of funk, and sometimes hip hop -style rhymes into an alternative rock approach to songwriting. A primary example is the all-African-American rock band Living Colourwho have been said to be "funk-metal Wiley - Its The Music (Vinyl) by Rolling Stone. G-funk is a fusion genre of music which combines gangsta rap and funk. It is generally considered to have been invented by West Coast rappers and made famous by Dr.
It incorporates multi-layered and melodic synthesizers, slow hypnotic grooves, a deep bass, background female vocals, the extensive sampling of P-Funk tunes, and a high-pitched portamento saw wave synthesizer lead.
Unlike other earlier rap acts that also utilized funk samples such as EPMD and the Bomb SquadG-funk often used fewer, unaltered samples per song. Timba is a form of funky Cuban popular dance music. Byseveral Cuban bands had incorporated elements of funk and hip-hop into their arrangements, and expanded upon the instrumentation of the traditional conjunto with an American drum set, saxophones and a two-keyboard format.
While many funk motifs exhibit a clave -based structure, they are created intuitively, without a conscious intent of aligning the various parts Wiley - Its The Music (Vinyl) a guide-pattern. Timba incorporates funk motifs into an overt and intentional clave structure. Funk jam is a fusion genre of music which emerged in the s. It typically incorporates elements of funk and often exploratory guitar, along with extended cross genre improvisations; often including elements of jazzambientelectronicAmericanaand hip hop including improvised lyrics.
Despite funk's popularity in modern music, few people have examined the work of funk women. She states that "Betty Davis is an artist whose name has gone unheralded as a pioneer in the annals of funk and rock. Most writing on these musical genres has traditionally placed male artists like Jimi Hendrix, George Clinton of Parliament-Funkadelicand bassist Larry Graham as trendsetters in the shaping of a rock music sensibility. Greene  notes that Davis' provocative and controversial style helped her rise to popularity in the s as she focused on sexually motivated, self-empowered subject matter.
Furthermore, this affected the young artist's ability to draw large audiences and commercial success. Greene also notes that Davis was never made an official spokesperson or champion for the civil rights and feminist movements of the time, although more recently [ when?
Laina Dawes, the author of What Are You Doing Here: A Black Woman's Life and Liberation in Heavy Metalbelieves respectability politics is the reason artists like Davis do not get the same recognition as their male counterparts: "I blame what I call respectability politics as part of the reason the funk-rock some of the women from the '70s aren't better known.
Despite the importance of their music and presence, many of the funk-rock females represented the aggressive behavior and sexuality that many people were not comfortable with.
According to Francesca T. Royster criticizes Vincent's analysis of the group, stating: "It is a shame, then, that Vincent gives such minimal attention to Labelle's performances in his study. This reflects, unfortunately, a still consistent sexism that shapes the evaluation of funk music. In FunkVincent's analysis of Labelle is brief—sharing a single paragraph with the Pointer Sisters in his three-page sub chapter, 'Funky Women.
In recent years, [ when? Valnes acknowledges that funk is male-dominated, but provides insight to the societal circumstances that led to this situation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Funk music. Music genre that originated in African-American communities in the mids. For other uses, see Funk disambiguation. Soul music with a greater emphasis on the beats and rhythms of an arrangement, influences from rhythm and blues and jazz.
Deep funk go-go P-Funk. Acid Wiley - Its The Music (Vinyl) afrobeat avant-funk free funk funk metal funk-pop funk rock funky house G-funk glitch hop jazz-funk psychedelic funk skweee UK funky Brit funk. Musicians psychedelic soul. Main article: P-Funk.
See also: Progressive soul and disco.
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