It was clear that, from the time whatever hit him to the moment he had landed on the floor, Elvis hadn't moved. President Jimmy Carter issued a statement that credited Presley with having "permanently changed the face of American popular culture". Presley's funeral was held at Graceland on Thursday, August Outside the gates, a car plowed into a group of fans, killing two young women and critically injuring a third.
While an autopsy, undertaken the same day Presley died, was still in progress, Memphis medical examiner Jerry Francisco announced that the immediate cause of death was cardiac arrest. Asked if drugs were involved, he declared that "drugs played no role in Presley's death". The pathologists conducting the autopsy thought it possible, for instance, that he had suffered "anaphylactic shock brought on by the codeine pills he had gotten from his dentist, to which he was known to have had a mild allergy".
A pair of lab reports filed two months later strongly suggested that polypharmacy was the primary cause of death; one reported "fourteen drugs in Elvis' system, ten in significant quantity". That, together with his drug habit, caused his death. But he was difficult to diagnose; it was a judgment call. The competence and ethics of two of the centrally involved medical professionals were seriously questioned. Francisco had offered a cause of death before the autopsy was complete; claimed the underlying ailment was cardiac arrhythmiaa condition that can be determined only in someone who is still alive; and denied drugs played any part in Presley's death before the toxicology results were known.
It was permanently revoked in the s after the Tennessee Medical Board brought new charges of over-prescription. Inthe Presley autopsy report was reopened. Joseph Davis, who had conducted thousands of autopsies as Miami-Dade County coroner,  declared at its completion, "There is nothing in any of the data that supports a death from drugs. In fact, everything points to a sudden, violent heart attack.
Other staff "could say nothing with confidence until they got the results back from the laboratories, if then. That would be a matter of weeks.
Eric Muirhead, "could not believe his ears. Francisco had not only presumed to speak for the hospital's team of pathologists, he had announced a conclusion that they had not reached. Early on, a meticulous dissection of the body As they proceeded, the doctors saw evidence that his body had been wracked over a span of years by a large and constant stream of drugs.
They had also studied his hospital records, which included two admissions for drug detoxification and methadone treatments. Put simply, the strain of attempting to defecate compressed the singer's abdominal aortashutting down his heart.
However, inForest Tennantwho had testified as a defense witness in Nichopoulos' trial, described his own analysis of Presley's available medical records. He concluded that Presley's "drug abuse had led to falls, head trauma, and overdoses that damaged his brain", and that his death was due in part to a toxic reaction to codeine—exacerbated by an undetected liver enzyme defect—which can cause sudden cardiac arrhythmia.
Between andsix of Presley's posthumously released singles were top-ten country hits. Graceland was opened to the public in Attracting over half a million visitors annually, it became the second most-visited home in the United States, after the White House.
Inhe received the W. It topped the charts in over 20 countries and was included in a compilation of Presley's number-one hits, ELV1Swhich was also an international success.
The album returned Presley to the Billboard summit for the first time in almost Album) decades. Ina remix of " Rubberneckin' ", a recording of Presley's, topped the U.
They were part of a campaign that saw the re-release of all 18 of Presley's previous chart-topping UK singles. The first, "All Shook Up", came with a collectors' box that made it ineligible to chart again; each of the other 17 reissues hit the British top five. For much of his adult life, Presley, with his rise from poverty to riches and massive fame, had seemed to epitomize the American Dream.
Sincethere have been numerous alleged sightings of Presley. A long-standing conspiracy theory among some fans is that he faked his death. It is as if he has been canonized by acclamation. Presley's earliest musical influence came from gospel.
His mother recalled that from the age of two, at the Assembly of God church in Tupelo attended by the family, "he would slide down off my lap, run into the aisle and scramble up to the platform. There he would stand looking at the choir and trying to sing with them.
The Statesmen were an electric combination Bass singer Jim Wetherington, known universally as the Big Chief, maintained a steady bottom, ceaselessly jiggling first his left leg, then his right, with the material of the pants leg ballooning out and shimmering. As a teenagerPresley's musical interests were wide-ranging, and he was deeply informed about both white and African-American musical idioms.
Though he never had any formal training, he had a remarkable memory, and his musical knowledge was already considerable by the time he made his first professional recordings aged 19 in When Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller met him two years later, they were astonished at his encyclopedic understanding of the blues,  and, as Stoller put it, "He certainly knew a lot more than we did about country music and gospel music.
Presley received his first guitar when he was 11 years old. He learned to play and sing; Album) gained no formal musical training but had an innate natural talent and could easily pick up music. While he couldn't read or write music and had no formal lessons, he was a natural musician and played everything by ear.
Presley played rhythm acoustic guitar on most of his Sun recordings and his s RCA albums. Presley was a central figure in the development of rockabillyaccording to music historians. Carl Perkins was doing basically the same sort of thing up around Jacksonand I know for a fact Jerry Lee Lewis had been playing that kind of music ever since he was ten years old.
At RCA Victor, Presley's rock and roll sound grew distinct from rockabilly with group chorus vocals, more heavily amplified electric guitars  and a tougher, more intense manner. Inhis first gospel record was released, the four-song EP Peace in the Valley.
Certified as a million-seller, it became the top-selling gospel EP in recording history. After his return from military service inPresley continued to perform rock and roll, but the characteristic style was substantially toned down. His first post-Army single, the number-one hit "Stuck on You", is typical of this shift. RCA Victor publicity referred to its "mild rock beat"; discographer Ernst Jorgensen calls it "upbeat pop". While Presley performed several of his classic ballads for the '68 Comeback Specialthe sound of the show was dominated by aggressive rock and roll.
He recorded few new straight rock and roll songs thereafter; as he explained, they had become "hard to find". Like his work of the s, Presley's subsequent recordings reworked pop and country songs, but in markedly different permutations. His stylistic range now began to embrace a more contemporary rock sound as well as soul and funk. Much of Elvis in Memphisas well as "Suspicious Minds", cut at the same sessions, reflected this new rock and soul fusion. In the mids, many of his singles found a home on country radio, the field where he first became a star.
The developmental arc of Presley's singing voice, as described by critic Dave Marsh, goes from "high and thrilled in the early days, [to] lower and perplexed in the final months. Jorgensen calls the recording of "How Great Thou Art" "an extraordinary fulfillment of his vocal ambitions", as Presley "crafted for himself an ad-hoc arrangement in which he took every part of the four-part vocal, from [the] bass intro to the soaring heights of the song's operatic climax", becoming "a kind of one-man quartet".
Hess himself thought that while others might have voices the equal of Presley's, "he had that certain something that everyone searches for all during their lifetime. Marsh praises his reading of " U. Male ", "bearing down on the hard guy lyrics, not sending them up or overplaying them but tossing them around with that astonishingly tough yet gentle assurance that he brought to his Sun records.
Music critic Henry Pleasants observes that "Presley has been described variously as a baritone and a tenor. An extraordinary compass Presley's best octave is in the middle, D-flat to D-flat, granting an extra full step up or down. His voice can not be measured in octaves, but in decibels; even that misses the problem of how to measure delicate whispers that are hardly audible at all.
When Dewey Phillips first aired "That's All Right" on Memphis' WHBQmany listeners who contacted the station by phone and telegram to ask for it again assumed that its singer was black. Interviewed inhe recalled how in his childhood he would listen to blues musician Arthur Crudup —the originator of "That's All Right"—"bang his box the way I do now, and I said if I ever got to the place where I could feel all old Arthur felt, I'd be a music man like nobody ever saw.
Anti-negro prejudice doubtless figured in adult antagonism. Regardless of whether parents were aware of the Loving You - Scotty Moore - The Guitar That Changed The World (CD sexual origins of the phrase 'rock 'n' roll', Presley impressed them as the visual and aural embodiment of sex.
Despite the largely positive view of Presley held by African Americans, a rumor spread in mid that he had at some point announced, "The only thing Negroes can do for me is buy my records and shine my shoes. On the set of Jailhouse RockPresley granted Robinson an interview, though he was no longer dealing with the mainstream press. He denied making such a statement: "I never said anything like that, and people who know me know that I wouldn't have said it.
A lot of people seem to think I started this business. But rock 'n' roll was here a long time before I came along.
Nobody can sing that kind of music like colored people. Let's face it: I can't sing like Fats Domino can. I know that. The persistence of such attitudes was fueled by resentment over the fact that Presley, whose musical and visual performance idiom owed much to African-American sources, achieved the cultural acknowledgement and commercial success largely denied his black peers.
Addressing his '68 Comeback Special audience, he said, "Rock 'n' roll music is basically gospel or rhythm and blues, or it sprang from that. People have been adding to it, adding instruments to it, experimenting with it, but it all boils down to [that]. It used to be called rhythm and blues. Presley's physical attractiveness and sexual appeal were Album) acknowledged.
He was that good looking. And if you never knew he was a superstar, it wouldn't make any difference; if he'd walked in the room, you'd know somebody special was in your presence. Writing incritic George Melly described him as "the master of the sexual simile, treating his guitar as both phallus and girl".
While Presley was marketed as an icon of heterosexuality, some cultural critics have argued that his image was ambiguous. InSight and Sound ' s Peter John Dyer described his onscreen persona as "aggressively bisexual in appeal".
Reinforcing Presley's image as a sex symbol were the reports of his dalliances with various Hollywood stars and starlets, from Natalie Wood in the s to Connie Stevens and Ann-Margret in the s to Candice Bergen and Cybill Shepherd in the s. June Juanico of Memphis, one of Presley's early girlfriends, later blamed Parker for encouraging him to choose his dating partners with publicity in mind.
Elvis kept several horses at Gracelandand horses remain important to the Graceland estate. A local former teacher, Alene Alexander, has taken care of the horses at Graceland for 38 years.
She and Priscilla Presley have a love for horses and have formed a special friendship. It was because of Priscilla that Elvis brought horses to Graceland. Alexander now serves as Graceland's Ambassador. She is one of three of the original staff members still working at the estate.
The horse named Palomino Rising Sun was Elvis' favorite horse, and there are many photographs of him riding him. Once he became Presley's manager, Colonel Tom Parker insisted on exceptionally tight control over his client's career. Early on, he and his Hill and Range allies, the brothers Jean and Julian Aberbachperceived the close relationship that developed between Presley and songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller as a serious threat to that control.
Leiber thought there was a mistake—the sheet of paper was blank except for Parker's signature and a line on which to enter his. ByParker's contracts gave him 50 percent of most of Presley's earnings from recordings, films, and merchandise.
He would sign a contract without even reading it. He was only interested in 'now money'—get the buck and get gone. Lacker was instrumental in convincing Presley to record with Memphis producer Chips Moman and his handpicked musicians at American Sound Studio in early The American Sound sessions represented a significant departure from the control customarily exerted by Hill and Range. Moman still had to deal with the publisher's staff on-site, whose song suggestions he regarded as unacceptable.
He was on the verge of quitting until Presley ordered the Hill and Range personnel out of the studio. Throughout his entire career, Presley performed in only three venues outside the United States—all of them in Canada, during brief tours there in I'll probably start out here in this country and after that, play some concerts abroad, probably starting in Europe.
I want to see some places I've never seen before. Parker was uncharacteristically reluctant, prompting those close to Presley to speculate about the manager's past and the reasons for his evident unwillingness to apply for a passport.
Parker arguably exercised tightest control over Presley's film career. Hal Wallis said, "I'd rather try and close a deal with the devil" than with Parker. Fellow film producer Sam Katzman described him as "the biggest con artist in the world".
In Lacker's description, "The only thing that kept Elvis going after the early years was a new challenge. But Parker kept running everything into the ground. In Leiber's telling, Jean Aberbach warned them to never again "try to interfere with the business or artistic workings of the process known as Elvis Presley".
In the early s, the circle of friends with whom Presley constantly surrounded himself until his death came to be known as the "Memphis Mafia". If we hadn't been around, he would have been dead a lot earlier.
Larry Geller became Presley's hairdresser in Unlike others in the Memphis Mafia, he was interested in spiritual questions and recalls how, from their first conversation, Presley revealed his secret thoughts and anxieties: "I mean there has to be a purpose I swear to God, no one knows how lonely I get. And how empty I really feel. I know he invented rock and roll, in a manner of speaking, but He's worshiped as a god today because in addition to inventing rock and roll he was the greatest ballad singer this side of Frank Sinatra —because the spiritual translucence and reined-in gut sexuality of his slow weeper and torchy pop blues still activate the hormones and slavish devotion of millions of female human beings worldwide.
Presley's rise to national attention in transformed the field of popular music and had a huge effect on the broader scope of popular culture. Elvis was a blessing. They wouldn't let black music through. He opened the door for black music. His following was immense, and he was a symbol to people the world over of the vitality, rebelliousness, and good humor of his country.
Presley's name, image, and voice are recognized around the globe. He introduced the beat to everything and he changed everything—music, language, clothes. It's a whole new social revolution—the sixties came from it. On the 25th anniversary of Presley's death, The New York Times asserted, "All the talentless impersonators and appalling black velvet paintings on display can make him seem little more than a perverse and distant memory.
But before Elvis was camp, he was its opposite: a genuine cultural force. Elvis' breakthroughs are underappreciated because in this rock-and-roll age, his hard-rocking music and sultry style have triumphed so completely. Elvis Presley is a supreme figure in American life, one whose presence, no matter how banal or predictable, brooks no real comparisons.
The cultural range of his music has expanded to the point where it includes not only the hits of the day, but also patriotic recitals, pure country gospel, and really dirty blues.
Elvis has emerged as a great artista great rockera great purveyor of schlocka great heart throba great borea great symbol of potencya great hama great nice personand, yes, a great American. Presley remains the best-selling solo music artist according to Guinness World Records  with sales estimated up to million. Presley holds the records for most songs charting in Billboard ' s top 40—    —and topaccording to chart statistician Joel Whitburn  according to Presley historian Adam Victor.
Whitburn has Presley also with 18, and thus tied for second;  Billboard has him third with As an album artist, Presley is credited by Billboard with the record for the most albums charting in the Billboard :far ahead of second-place Frank Sinatra's He also holds the record for most time spent at number one on the Billboard 67 weeks. This gave him a new record for number-one UK albums by a solo artist with 13, and extended his record for longest span between number-one albums by anybody—Presley had first topped the British chart in with his self-titled debut.
Inthe spider Paradonea presleyi was named in his honor. Presley worked with many bands and studio musicians over the course of his career. The following is a list and timeline of the most prominent musicians that worked with Presley during his lifetime. A vast number of recordings have been issued under Presley's name. The total number of his original master recordings has been variously calculated as  and In the case of his albums, the distinction between "official" studio records and other forms is often blurred.
For most of the s, his recording career focused on soundtrack albums. In the s, his most heavily promoted and bestselling LP releases tended to be concert albums. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American singer and actor. For other uses, see Elvis disambiguation. Presley in a publicity photograph for the film Jailhouse Rock. Tupelo, MississippiU. Memphis, TennesseeU. Priscilla Beaulieu. Musical artist. See also: List of songs recorded by Elvis Presley on the Sun label.
Presley transformed not only the sound but the emotion of the song, turning what had been written as a "lament for a lost love into a satisfied declaration of independence. Presley's definition of rock and roll included a sense of humor—here, during his second Sullivan appearance, he introduces one of his signature numbers.
Elvis in publicity photos for the film Jailhouse Rock. See also: Military career of Elvis Presley. See also: Elvis Presley on film and television. Presley broke new stylistic ground and displayed his vocal range with this number-one hit. The quasi-operatic ballad ends with Presley "soaring up to an incredible top G sharp. Main article: Singer Presents Beginning with his American Sound recordings, soul music became a central element in Presley's fusion of styles.
Here, he revels in lyrics full of sexual innuendo. See also: Aloha from Hawaii via Satellite. From How Great Thou Arta traditional song popular in the black gospel tradition. The arrangement evokes "the percussive style of the s Golden Gate Quartet. Further information: Colonel Tom Parker. Main article: Memphis Mafia. Scotty Moore — lead guitar, backing vocals —59, —69; died Bill Black — double bass, backing vocals —58; died DJ Fontana — drums —59, —69; died Gordon Stoker — backing vocals —59, —68, —71; died Neal Matthews, Jr.
Hardin — piano —76 Emory Gordy, Jr — bass guitar, backing vocals Duke Bardwell — bass guitar, backing vocals —75 David Briggs — piano —77 Tony Brown — piano —77 Bobby Ogdin — piano Main articles: Elvis Presley albums discographysinglesand songs.
Blues Blue Hawaii Girls! Main article: Elvis Presley on film and television. The physician who delivered him wrote "Elvis Aaron Presley" in his ledger. The name was chosen after the Presleys' friend and fellow congregation member Aaron Kennedy, though a single-A spelling was probably intended by Presley's parents to parallel the middle name of Presley's stillborn brother, Jesse Garon. Late in his life, he sought to officially change the spelling to Aaron and discovered that state records already listed it that way.
Knowing his wishes for his middle name, Aaron is the spelling his father chose for Presley's tombstone, and it is the spelling his estate has designated as official. He received credit on two other songs to which he did contribute: he provided the title for " That's Someone You Never Forget "written by his friend and former Humes schoolmate Red West ; Presley and West collaborated with another friend, guitarist Charlie Hodge, on " You'll Be Gone " He tallies each side of the former single as a number-one Billboard ' s sales chart had "Don't Be Cruel" at number one for five weeks, then "Hound Dog" for six and reckons "I Beg of You" as a top ten, as it reached number eight on the old Top chart.
Billboard now considers both singles as unified items, ignoring the historical sales split of the former and its old Top chart entirely. Whitburn thus analyzes the four songs as yielding three number ones and a total of four top tens.
Billboard now states that they yielded just two number ones and a total of two top tens, voiding the separate chart appearances of "Hound Dog" and "I Beg of You". CBS News. Retrieved July 12, July 19, Elvis Presley: The Man. The Life. The Legend. Simon and Schuster. ISBN Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved March 3, Graceland to Downtown Memphis. Retrieved March 10, The Elvis Movies.
Retrieved April 22, August 15, Retrieved January 9, March 17, Retrieved July 1, December 3, Roberts Backbeat Books. Jerry Osborne Enterprises. Being Elvis: A Lonely Life. Liveright Publishing. Ziff-Davis Publishing Company. Rock Hardware. Balafon Books. Equine Info Exchange. January 27, Altieri August 8, Guinness World Records. Retrieved August 3, Geo News. August 13, Retrieved June 19, ZooKeys : 1— ISSN PMC PMID Adelman, Kim Random House.
Alden, Ginger New York: Berkeley Publishing. Allen, Steve Hi-Ho, Steverino! Thorndike Press. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen Pearson Prentice Hall. Ashley, Martin How High Should Boys Sing?
The Atlantic. December Retrieved January 19, Austen, Jake Chicago Review Press. Baden, Michael M. Unnatural Death: Confessions of a Medical Examiner. Baillie, Russell November 6, New Zealand Herald.
Retrieved November 9, Baird, Robert December 23, Retrieved January 17, BBC News. April 18, Retrieved December 29, The Beatles The Beatles Anthology. Chronicle Books. Bennet, Mark August 15, Daily Herald of Arlington Heights. Retrieved February 2, Bertrand, Michael T Race, Rock, and Elvis. University of Illinois Press. October 30, Archived from the original on May 7, Bloom, Nate Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved February 6, Bouchard, Dany November 5, Toronto Sun.
Bronson, Fred May 9, Bronson, Fred July 3, Burke, Ken; Griffin, Dan Caine, Andrew Palgrave Macmillan. Campbell, Michael Popular Music in America 3rd ed. Caulfield, Keith September 18, Caulfield, Keith November 25, Charlton, Katherine Rock Music Styles: A History 5th ed. Christgau, Robert December 24, The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved August 26, Clarke, Steve In Coady, David ed.
Conspiracy Theories: The Philosophical Debate. Clayton, Dick; Heard, James Virgin Publishing. May 12, Retrieved January 20, Coffey, Frank The Complete Idiot's Guide to Elvis. New York: Alpha Books. Collins, Dan August 7, Retrieved December 27, Connelly, Charlie Little, Brown. Cook, Jody United States Department of the Interior. Corcoran, John March 1, Black Belt. Retrieved December 17, Cosby, James A. Cusic, Don Summer The Gospel Music Magazine. Davies, Hunter The Beatles 2nd rev. Denisoff, R.
Serge The reissue received five stars out of five from Rolling Stone. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Elvis Presley. The first track on side one introduces Memphis soul, with a bass lead used for the first time on a Presley recording. The opening track of side two features lyrics full of sexual innuendo. Wayne Jackson — trumpet Dick Steff — trumpet R. ISBN Archived from the original on September 18, Retrieved June 20, The Rough Guide to Elvis. London: Rough Guides.
Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved Recording Industry Association of America. Billboard staff Nielsen Business Media, Inc. ISSN Billboard staff 2 Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian David GfK Entertainment.
Retrieved August 17, Collins, Ace Souvenir Press Ltd. Davis, Sharon Random House. De Sylvia, Dave Retrieved May 5, Doll, Susan Elvis for Dummies. Durand, Dominic Archived from the original on May 7, Retrieved October 8, Dutch Charts in Dutch. Hung Medien. Eder, Bruce Rovi Corporation. Retrieved May 2, Eder, Mike Hal Leonard Corporation. Fortas, Alan Elvis: From Memphis to Hollywood. Aurum Press. Gaar, Gillian Jawbone Press. Gordon, Robert; McAdams, Tara From Elvis in Memphis Legacy Edition booklet.
Legacy Recordings. Guralnick, Peter 23 August Retrieved 12 November Guralnick, Peter RCA Records. RCA Little, Brown and Company.
High Fidelity staff Album reviews. ABC Leisure Magazines. Hoffman, Frank Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound. Humphries, Patrick Andrews McMeel publishing. Hunter, James Wenner Media LLC. Jones, Roben University Press of Mississippi.
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