The British Invasion greatly influenced garage bands, providing them with a national audience, leading many often surf or hot rod groups to adopt a British influence, and encouraging many more groups to form. It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around Particularly significant was the release of Blues Breakers with Eric Clapton Beano albumconsidered one of the seminal British blues recordings and the sound of which was much emulated in both Britain and the United States.
Many of the songs on their first three albums, and occasionally later in their careers, were expansions on traditional blues songs. In America, blues rock had been pioneered in the early s by guitarist Lonnie Mack but the genre began to take off in the mids as acts developed a sound similar to British blues musicians.
Geils Band and Jimi Hendrix with his power triosthe Jimi Hendrix Experience which included two British members, and was founded in Britainand Band of Gypsyswhose guitar virtuosity and showmanship would be among the most emulated of the decade.
Early blues rock bands often emulated jazz, playing long, involved improvisations, which would later be a major element of progressive rock. From about bands like Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience had moved away from purely blues-based music into psychedelia.
By the s, the scene that had developed out of the American folk music revival had grown to a major movement, utilising traditional music and new compositions in a traditional style, usually on acoustic instruments. Early attempts to combine elements of folk and rock included the Animals' " House of the Rising Sun "which was the first commercially successful folk song to be recorded with rock and roll instrumentation  and the Album) " I'm a Loser "arguably the first Beatles song to be influenced directly by Dylan.
Tambourine Man " which topped the charts in Folk-rock reached its peak of commercial popularity in the period —68, before many acts moved off in a variety of directions, including Dylan and the Byrds, who began to develop country rock.
Psychedelic music's LSD -inspired vibe began in the folk scene. Pepper was later regarded as the greatest album of all time and a starting point for the album eraduring which rock music transitioned from the singles format to albums and achieved cultural legitimacy in the mainstream. Progressive rock, a term sometimes used interchangeably with art rockmoved beyond established musical formulas by experimenting with different instruments, song types, and forms.
Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy and science fiction.
Greater commercial success was enjoyed by Pink Floyd, who also moved away from psychedelia after the departure of Syd Barrett inwith The Dark Side of the Moonseen as a masterpiece of the genre, becoming one of the best-selling albums of all time. The instrumental strand of the genre resulted in albums like Mike Oldfield 's Tubular Bellsthe first record, and worldwide hit, for the Virgin Records label, which became a mainstay of the genre.
In the late s, jazz-rock emerged as a distinct subgenre out of the blues-rock, psychedelic, and progressive rock scenes, mixing the power of rock with the musical complexity and improvisational elements of jazz. AllMusic states that the term jazz-rock "may refer to the loudest, wildest, most electrified fusion bands from the jazz camp, but most often it describes performers coming from the rock side of the equation.
In Britain the subgenre of blues rock, and many of its leading figures, like Ginger Baker and Jack Bruce of the Eric Clapton -fronted band Creamhad emerged from the British jazz scene. Often highlighted as the first true jazz-rock recording is the only album by the relatively obscure New York-based the Free Spirits with Out of Sight and Sound British acts to emerge in the same period from the blues scene, to make use of the tonal and improvisational aspects of jazz, included Nucleus  and the Graham Bond and John Mayall spin-off Colosseum.
From the psychedelic rock and the Canterbury scenes came Soft Machine, who, it has been suggested, produced one of the artistically successfully fusions of the two genres. Perhaps the most critically acclaimed fusion came from the jazz side of the equation, with Miles Davisparticularly influenced by the work of Hendrix, incorporating rock instrumentation into his sound for the album Bitches Brew It was a major influence on subsequent rock-influenced jazz artists, including Herbie HancockChick Corea and Weather Report.
Reflecting on developments in rock music at the start of the s, Robert Christgau later wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies : . The decade is, of course, an arbitrary schema itself—time doesn't just execute a neat turn toward the future every ten years. But like a lot of artificial concepts—money, say—the category does take on a reality of its own once people figure out how to put it to work.
In popular music, embracing the '70s meant both an elitist withdrawal from the messy concert and counterculture scene and a profiteering pursuit of the lowest common denominator in FM radio and album rock.
Rock saw greater commodification during this decade, turning into a multibillion-dollar industry and doubling its market while, as Christgau noted, suffering a significant "loss of cultural prestige".
In the '70s the powerful took over, as rock industrialists capitalized on the national mood to reduce potent music to an often reactionary species of entertainment—and to transmute rock's popular base from the audience to market. Roots rock is the term now used to describe a move away from what some saw as the excesses of the psychedelic scene, to a more basic form of rock and roll that incorporated its original influences, particularly country and folk music, leading to the creation of country rock and Southern rock.
The founders of Southern rock are usually thought to be the Allman Brothers Band, who developed a distinctive sound, largely derived from blues rockbut incorporating elements of boogiesoul, and country in the early s.
Glam rock emerged from the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late s and can be seen as both an extension of and reaction against those trends. The origins of glam rock are associated with Marc Bolanwho had renamed his folk duo to T. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the s. After the early successes of Latin rock in the s, Chicano musicians like Carlos Santana and Al Hurricane continued to have successful careers throughout the s.
Santana opened the decade with success in his single " Black Magic Woman " on the Abraxas album. A strange time, —although rock's balkanization into genres was well underway, it was often hard to tell one catch-phrase from the next.
From the late s it became common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was often derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. From the late s the term "heavy metal" began to be used to describe some hard rock played with even more volume and intensity, first as an adjective and by the early s as a noun. Led Zeppelin added elements of fantasy to their riff laden blues-rock, Deep Purple brought in symphonic and medieval interests from their progressive rock phase and Black Sabbath introduced facets of the gothic and modal harmonyhelping to produce a "darker" sound.
Rock, mostly the heavy metal genre, has been criticized by some Christian leaders, who have condemned it as immoral, anti-Christian and even satanic. Starting in the s Christian pop performers have had some mainstream success.
While these artists were largely acceptable in Christian communities, the adoption of heavy rock and glam metal styles by bands like Stryperwho achieved considerable mainstream success in the s, was more controversial.
American working-class oriented heartland rock, characterized by a straightforward musical style, and a concern with the lives of ordinary, blue-collar American people, developed in the second half of the s. The term heartland rock was first used to describe Midwestern arena rock groups like KansasREO Speedwagon and Styx, but which came to be associated with a more socially concerned form of roots rock more directly influenced by folk, country and rock and roll.
Exemplified by the commercial success of singer songwriters Bruce SpringsteenBob Segerand Tom Pettyalong with less widely known acts such as Southside Johnny and the Asbury Jukes and Joe Grushecky and the Houserockersit was partly a reaction to post-industrial urban decline in the East and Mid-West, often dwelling on issues of social disintegration and isolation, beside a form of good-time rock and roll revivalism.
Heartland rock faded away as a recognized genre by the early s, as rock music in general, and blue-collar and white working class themes in particular, lost influence with younger audiences, and as heartland's artists turned to more personal works. Newer artists whose music would perhaps have been labeled heartland rock had it been released in the s or s, such as Missouri's Bottle Rockets and Illinois' Uncle Tupelooften find themselves labeled alt-country.
Punk rock was developed between and in the United States and the United Kingdom. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream s rock. Punk embraces a DIY do it yourself ethicwith many bands self-producing their recordings and distributing them through informal channels.
Punk quickly became a major cultural phenomenon in the UK. The Sex Pistols' live TV skirmish with Bill Grundy on December 1, was the watershed moment in British punk's transformation into a major media phenomenon, even as some stores refused to stock the records and radio airplay was hard to come by. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive clothing styles and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
By the beginning of the s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! Although punk rock was a significant social and musical phenomenon, it achieved less in the way of record sales being distributed by small specialty labels such as Stiff Records or American radio airplay as the radio scene continued to be dominated by mainstream formats such as disco and album-oriented rock.
If hardcore most directly pursued the stripped down aesthetic of punk, and new wave came to represent its commercial wing, post-punk emerged in the later s and early s as its more artistic and challenging side. The first wave of British post-punk included Gang of FourSiouxsie and the Banshees and Joy Divisionwho placed less emphasis on art than their US counterparts and more on the dark emotional qualities of their music.
The second generation of British post-punk bands that broke through in the early s, including the Fallthe Pop Groupthe MekonsEcho and the Bunnymen and the Teardrop Explodestended to move away from dark sonic landscapes. The term alternative rock was coined in the early s to describe rock artists who did not fit into the mainstream genres of the time. Bands dubbed "alternative" had no unified style, but were all seen as distinct from mainstream music.
Alternative bands were linked by their collective debt to punk rock, through hardcore, New Wave or the post-punk movements. Few of these early bands achieved mainstream success, although exceptions to this rule include R. Despite a general lack of spectacular album sales, the original alternative rock bands exerted a considerable influence on the generation of musicians who came of age in the s and ended up breaking through to mainstream success in the s. Styles of alternative rock in the US during the s included jangle popassociated with the early recordings of R.
Disaffected by commercialized and highly produced pop and rock in the mids, bands in Washington state particularly in the Seattle area formed a new style of rock which sharply contrasted with the mainstream music of the time.
Bands such as Green RiverSoundgardenMelvins and Skin Yard pioneered the genre, with Mudhoney becoming the most successful by the end of the decade. Grunge remained largely a local phenomenon untilwhen Nirvana 's album Nevermind became a huge success, containing the anthemic song " Smells Like Teen Spirit ". During andother grunge albums such as Pearl Jam 's TenSoundgarden's Badmotorfinger and Alice in Chains ' Dirtalong with the Temple of the Dog album featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, became among the top-selling albums.
Britpop emerged from the British alternative rock scene of the early s and was characterised by bands particularly influenced by British guitar music of the s and s. The term post-grunge was coined for the generation of bands that followed the emergence into the mainstream and subsequent hiatus of the Seattle grunge bands.
Post-grunge bands emulated their attitudes and music, but with a more radio-friendly commercially oriented sound. Some post-grunge bands, like Candleboxwere from Seattle, but the subgenre was marked by a broadening of the geographical base of grunge, with bands like Los Angeles' Audioslaveand Georgia's Collective Soul and beyond the US to Australia's Silverchair and Britain's Bushwho all cemented post-grunge as one of the most commercially viable subgenres of the late s.
The origins of s pop punk can be seen in the more song-oriented bands of the s punk movement like Buzzcocks and the Clashcommercially successful new wave acts such as the Jam and the Undertonesand the more hardcore-influenced elements of alternative rock in the s.
A second wave of pop punk was spearheaded by Blinkwith their breakthrough album Enema of the Statefollowed by bands such as Good CharlotteSimple Plan and Sum 41who made use of humour in their videos and had a more radio-friendly tone to their music, while retaining the speed, some of the attitude and even the look of s punk.
In the s the terms indie rock and alternative rock were used interchangeably. By the end of the s many recognisable subgenres, most with their origins in the late s alternative movement, were included under the umbrella of indie. Lo-fi eschewed polished recording techniques for a D. Black Emperor and Quickspace. Alternative metal emerged from the hardcore scene of alternative rock in the US in the later s, but gained a wider audience after grunge broke into the mainstream in the early s.
Hip hop had gained attention from rock acts in the early s, including the Clash with " The Magnificent Seven " and Blondie with " Rapture " InFaith No More broke into the mainstream with their single " Epic ", often seen as the first truly successful combination of heavy metal with rap. Innu metal reached its peak with albums like Staind's Break the CycleP. From aboutas dissatisfaction grew with the concept of Cool Britannia, and Britpop as a movement began to dissolve, emerging bands began to avoid the Britpop label while still producing music derived from it.
Post-Britpop bands have been seen as presenting the image of the rock star as an ordinary person and their increasingly melodic music was criticised for being bland or derivative.
Post-hardcore developed in the US, particularly in the Chicago and Washington, DC areas, in the early to mids, with bands that were inspired by the do-it-yourself ethics and guitar-heavy music of hardcore punk, but influenced by post-punk, adopting longer song formats, more complex musical structures and sometimes more melodic vocal styles.
Emo also emerged from the hardcore scene in s Washington, D. In the early s, a new group of bands that played a stripped down and back-to-basics version of guitar rock, emerged into the mainstream.
They were variously characterised as part of a garage rock, post-punk or new wave revival. In the s, as computer technology became more accessible and music software advanced, it became possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer.
During the s, rock music saw a decline in mainstream popularity and cultural relevancy; byhip hop music had surpassed it as the most consumed musical genre in the United States. Despite rock's decline in mainstream popularity, some rock bands have continued to achieve mainstream success in the s and s, including Tool Fall Out Boy Greta Van Fleet Panic! Restrictions, such as quarantine rules, caused widespread cancellations and postponements of concerts, tours, festivals, album releases, award ceremonies, and competitions.
At the start of the s, recording artists in both pop and rap music released popular pop-punk recordings, many of them produced or assisted by Blink drummer Travis Barker. The popularity of the social media platform TikTok helped spark nostalgia for the angst-driven musical style among young listeners during the pandemic. Different subgenres of rock were adopted by, and became central to, the identity of a large number of sub-cultures.
In the s and s, respectively, British youths adopted the Teddy Boy and Rocker subcultures, which revolved around US rock and roll. When an international rock culture developed, LP supplanted cinema as the major sources of fashion influence.
Rock has been credited with changing attitudes to race by opening up African-American culture to white audiences; but at the same time, rock has been accused of appropriating and exploiting Album) culture. Since its early development, rock music has been associated with rebellion against social and political norms, most obviously in early rock and roll's rejection of an adult-dominated culture, the counterculture's rejection of consumerism and conformity and punk's rejection of all forms of social convention,  however, it can also be seen as providing a means of commercial exploitation of such ideas and of diverting youth away from political action.
Professional women instrumentalists are uncommon in rock genres such as heavy metal although bands such as Within Temptation have featured women as lead singers with men playing instruments.
According to Schaap and Berkers, "playing in a band is largely a male homosocial activity, that is, learning to play in a band is largely a peer-based In popular music, there has been a gendered "distinction between public male and private female participation" in music. Philip Auslander says that "Although there were many women in rock by the late s, most performed only as singers, a traditionally feminine position in popular music".
Though some women played instruments in American all-female garage rock bandsnone of these bands achieved more than regional success. So they "did not provide viable templates for women's on-going participation in rock".
An all-female band is a musical group in genres such as rock and blues which is exclusively composed of female musicians. This is distinct from a girl group, in which the female members are solely vocalists, though this terminology is not universally followed. Most of current outfits claiming to be the so-called Psychedelic Heavy Progressive Rock ones should be much influenced by the traditional Stoner or Grunge Rock as well as the early Psychedelic Progressive Rock.
They can be considered as a borderline case between Psychedelic Progressive, Heavy Progressive, and Progressive Metal. Psych Folk or Psychedelic Folk are other names for this genre, and is vaguely defined as a rock subgenre due to the mixture of folk rock and psychedelic rock. This is a style lacking in strict definitions, and it is contested whether or not the term was actually used at what is deemed the dawn of the genre.
It's an undeniable fact that the Acid Folk scene gained some popularity by the efforts of artists in "The Folk Revivalism", but it's important to remember that there were two distinctly different approaches taken by those who helped shape the genre in the mid 's.
Some folk singers approached a psychedelic rock structure as was popular at that time, while some psychedelic rock outfits tried to absorb and incorporate techniques and elements from folk rock. Both have great importance in the development of Acid Folk, and this may be the reason that strict definitions of the genre cannot be given.
They, as eccentric or heretical rock outfits, accepted and incorporated Middle-Eastern and Oriental elements or instruments, and the result was the foundation for the current progressive Acid Folk movement. Their amazing achievements resides in the twilight zone between the Prog Folk and Psychedelic Prog subgenres.
A path that never ends In addition of the styles described, psychedelic elements can be found in many other genres of progressive rock. The psychedelic cultural explosion had an immense influence on the western popular culture, and traces of it can still be heard also outside of progressive rock circles.
As the psychedelic movement was a large cultural phenomenon, it is difficult and maybe unnecessary to fence it to a clear category. Psychedelic progressive rock has been developing towards several different directions over time, and the task of classifying them as distinct genres and sub-genres is an ever ongoing process, often loaded with strong opinions.
The psychedelic rock artists which are not considered as progressive in style are not listed in the databse of www. This in order to maintain the site's scope to be a progressive rock reference.
The aim of this description is to be a tool of reference for potential and existing fans of the genre, and we hope that this will aid those who read it to a better understanding of the genre as well as to enjoy and discuss the subject at hand both in the forums of the Progarchives website as well as in other places online and offline both. Avant-Prog Avant-prog is an umbrella term which refers to any progressive rock artist with a strong leaning towards avant-garde and highly experimental approaches to music.
Therefore, it includes the sub-genres of Rock In Opposition see below and Zeuhl in addition to general avant-prog artists. Avant-prog is generally considered to be more extreme and 'difficult' than other forms of progressive rock, though these terms are naturally subjective and open to interpretation. Common elements that may or may not be displayed by specific avant-prog artists include: - Regular use of dissonance and atonality.
Most avant-prog artists are highly unique and eclectic in sound and consequently tend to resist easy comparisons. Rock In Opposition Rock In Opposition RIO for short is the name of a short-lived movement that has gone on to define a sub-genre of progressive rock, and which is now sometimes applied to musicians whose careers hadn't even started by the time the movement had ceased to exist in any official capacity.
It is not synonymous with the term avant-prog, for whilst bands associated with RIO are generally speaking avant-prog in nature, most avant-prog bands are not associated with RIO.
The roots of RIO can be traced to Henry Cow, a UK progressive rock band with a distinctly avant-garde sound and left wing political ideology. Henry Cow toured extensively in Europe throughout much of the s and came into contact with a few similarly inclined bands, in an ideological sense as much, if not more, than a musical one.
These groups did not always have much in common stylistically, apart from a basic leaning towards fusing avant-garde qualities with elements of rock. Most of these bands were working independently at the time and had no distribution or realistic opportunity of touring outside their native countries. The idea of Rock In Opposition was to create an independent network of like-minded performers that would not be dependent on the largesse of major record companies for their survival.
The Rock in Opposition slogan "The music the record companies don't want you to hear" was altered very slightly for the flyer advertising the first Rock in Opposition concert. They eventually came up with a plan to continue their joint concerts.
They organised three more festivals and co-operative record distributions but eventually the RIO group dissolved. It left behind a legacy that would initially be picked up by later projects from the many musicians involved with the original movement, and later on by artists inspired by the original RIO groups. Miriodor and Ensemble Nimbus are often said to be influenced by Samla Mammas Manna, for example, and are consequently sometimes referred to as RIO bands.
This festival has included artists closely associated with the original RIO movement alongside bands from the wider world of avant-prog and experimental music. They were all painters and sculptors just as in Renaissance Italy.
The background As the 60s drew to an end, Italy experienced a wave of new ideas and ideals which coincided with the new musical era being born. It would not be exaggeration to state that the 70s were a watershed period in the history of the country. Even though the 60s are generally remembered as the years of the 'economic boom', it was only in the following decade that Italy made the long, difficult change from a relatively poor, traditional country into a fully developed Western society.
A look at any timeline for 70s Italy will show an incredible concentration of events that changed the fabric of Italian society irrevocably: laws and acts were passed which affected worker's rights, family and divorce law, and women's rights and reproductive health. In a country where the physical presence of the Catholic Church has always been impossible to overlook, not least because of its open intervention in the country's political affairs, the introduction of such radical changes was no small feat.
Most of those changes were made possible by the presence of a strong left-wing component in Italian political life, even if regarded with extreme suspicion by both the Church and Italy's main ally, the United States. Though the existence of a party that openly called itself Communist was not exclusive to Italy, at the time the PCI Partito Comunista Italiano was considered more of a danger than, for instance, its French equivalent - mainly due to Italy's strategic position in the Mediterranean area, as well as the party's obvious connection with the Soviet Union.
Such a peculiar, potentially explosive situation sadly became a breeding ground for a number of extremist groups, who were responsible for the season of violence and unrest commonly known as the 'Anni di piombo' 'years of lead'which lasted well into the first half of the Eighties.
The number of casualties due to terror acts and rioting was quite high, involving people from all walks of life. However, the defining episode of the decade was the kidnapping and subsequent murder of well-known politician Aldo Moro a left-leaning Christian Democrat by the notorious Brigate Rosse 'Red Brigades' in the spring of The birth of a movement The turbulent times affected countless musicians looking for something new-some way to parallel the political climate through artistic media.
Ranging from highly educated conservatory students to local singer-songwriters, this spirit managed to captivate an entire country within a few short years.
Young people were restless, bursting with a burning desire to change the staid, suffocating atmosphere of Italian society starting with one of its symbols, its venerable musical tradition.
Most musicians had more or less strong left-wing leanings the prime example being Areawhile the few examples of openly right-wing bands never managed to break out of obscurity, or gain more than a strictly cult following.
Without a strong rock tradition in the 60s Italy had mainly produced beat bands of varying quality, as well as singers well-versed in the long-standing canzone tradition of the country.
As the tidal wave of counter-culture swept in, it brought revolution not only in the form of progressive rock, but also differing forms of heavier, continental rock which was establishing itself around the same time. Psychedelic influences and the incorporation of classical music may have been the same stepping stones used by most other progressive scenes around the globe during the same period, but even at this embryonic stage there was a whiff of something else in the air. In the late 60s when the beat scene was already heading towards a decline, a number of bands formed, some of them releasing singles or even albums that bridged the gap between beat, conventional Italian easy listening music musica leggeraand the new ideas coming from Great Britain - among them, New Trolls, Le Orme, Panna Fredda, I Quelli later to become Premiata Forneria MarconiIl Mucchio, and Fabio Celi e gli Infermieri.
After having been to the Isle of Wight festival, it was clear to all of us that we couldn't keep on playing the usual songs with verses and refrains. The golden years The beginning of the new decade saw the rise of a countless number of bands and artists, some of whom would go on to become successful acts. Some others only managed to release one album or even just a handful of singles before they disbanded.
The prog-rock bug became so widespread in Italy that some experts say every artist and band in Italy produced at least one progressive album during this time. A number of well-known mainstream artists started their career with a prog album, like singer-songwriters Riccardo Cocciante with Mu and Ivano Fossati with the first Delirium album, Dolce acqua. During the peak years of the RPI movement in the early 70s, countless bands showcased their talent in the many pop festivals organized throughout Italy.
The festivals were often free of charge and boasted a level artistic freedom and competition seldom seen in popular music. Fans witnessed bands rise from obscurity to compete on the same stage as the heavy hitters. This musical competition created something of an upward spiral; everyone tried to outdo each other, producing unique sounds and incorporating disparate influences into their music.
The variety of the music went through the roof, with every band sharing the same aspirations, though seldom the same sound. It must also be made clear that despite the beliefs of those who write off Italian prog as simply a British counterfeit, many of these bands were creating music that was phenomenally original, experimental, free-spirited, and creatively successful.
While bands from abroad helped influence and inspire Italian bands, Italy's young bands quickly took the ball and ran with it. It is ludicrous to suggest the scene a mere imitation. The upward spiral also meant an over saturated market, in which many bands only managed to put out one or two releases with minimal budget and intense recording. The New Sounds hadn't arrived yet, there was no music for the young people, there was nothing, you had to invent and build up your space.
Perhaps this was the mainspring that unchained such a creative strength. Ironically this success often meant a detour from the roots of the RPI sounds, making these albums more aligned to the British scene than the bulk of the artists and albums in the archives. Look beneath the surface in order to discover hidden or not so hidden gems. While the oft-mentioned big 3 of Italian prog PFM, Banco, and Le Orme are conveniently considered the peak by those casually mentioning this scene, RPI enthusiasts know the river runs so much deeper, and many of our personal favourites are found outside of these popular groups.
Those who search beyond the surface will discover that the most daring and provocative works were often made by more obscure groups who released one fantastic album and then vanished into thin air. This common syndrome of Italian "one-shot" bands became the bane of many RPI fans.
Since so many different musicians experimented with the progressive format, you will also find a broad musical scope within RPI, something which has kept the subgenre fresh and vital over time.
Examples include Franco Battiato still a very successful artist in ItalyPicchio dal Pozzo, Opus Avantra, Stormy Six and Area, who each in their own individual way, show a more cosmopolitan flavour and range of influences than most other acts.
After its explosive development in the early 70s, the movement followed the same path as other progressive musical movements around the world as the 80s approached. Some influential artists continued to release new albums though never with the same success as in the halcyon days. Others changed with the times and became highly successful mainstream artists both in Italy and internationally.
As elsewhere in the prog universe the quantity and quality of RPI began to dry up a bit in the late 70s and early 80s, although there were some quality releases from that period.
These titles tended to be more melodic and less brashly avant-garde than the classic period but were respectable nonetheless. Musical features of RPI Italian symphonic prog is notable for the prominence of classical influences, often providing the driving force behind the music.
The new listener will discover that this particular branch of RPI feels more like classical music in a rock setting as opposed to occasional classical influences on top of the rock format. Furthermore, the rich, diverse musical traditions of Italy permeate the albums, creating a strong national and even regional character.
The "textbook" RPI groups can usually be identified by a pervasive sense of romantic melancholy and earthy flair, sometimes enhanced by baroque elements, sometimes by more ethnic ones. Other distinctive features include overt opera and operetta influences, wild and uncontrolled storytelling, and as a general rule, bold and highly emotional vocals. There is extroverted, operatic gallantry and panache or mellow balladry; exciting use of all sorts of keyboards, with sounds heard nowhere else but in this particular scene; exotic instruments such as aggeggi, ottavino, mandoloncello, clavicembalo - names that tickle the imagination and leave their distinct mark on the music.
There is a uniquely magical marriage of the traditional to the modern, of the warm to the wild. The combination of flute, piano and violin is often encountered, and the interplay between the first two instruments in particular supplies the subgenre with a fair share of its identity and flavour.
Though the symphonic element is indeed the most common in RPI, the genre would be better characterized as eclectic. Even more amazing, these differences in style can often be found to varying degrees on one album, and still feel natural in the distinct stylistic framework mentioned above.
No overview of RPI would be complete without mentioning the use of the Italian language, by many considered one of the most musical languages in the world. It could be safely stated that the use of Italian is inherent to the soul of RPI, a critical component to the full appreciation of the subgenre.
In fact, even if some key RPI albums were translated into English in an attempt to gain international recognition, most of them fail to impress. They feel as if one of the basic ingredients of what makes RPI such a successful concoction is missing. While most serious RPI fans consider Italian vocals essential to their listening experience, it is fair to say that some believe English lyrics are not so detrimental-even if in most cases the odd phrasing, incorrect emphasis, and heavy Italian accent of the singers detract significantly from an authentic overall effect.
While some prog fans can find the gregarious Italian vocal style challenging at first, newbies are encouraged to simply stick with it for a while. With only a modest LP any RPI newbie will soon find they cannot imagine this music without traditional Italian vocals-they truly are the icing on the cake.
One common misconception that must be addressed is the belief that any prog band from Italy is an RPI band. There are bands from Italy more appropriate for other genres. As an example, a pure and obvious post-rock band who just happen to be from Rome are going to be in the post-rock sub, not RPI.
The RPI team will work hard to evaluate bands that fit the characteristics and the feel of the subgenre, and those whose primary sound is more suited for another sub are recommended to them. This cocktail is interpreted in different ways in every country: in England, for instance, Celtic, rock and blues influences prevail.
In Italy we have to cope with our classical tradition: the melodramma, Respighi, Puccini, Mascagni but also all the contemporary classical composers. It's in this legacy, in my opinion, that the specificity of the Italian Progressive Rock is concealed. Scores of the classic albums were re-pressed in Japan, then specialized independent labels such as BTF, Mellow and Black Widow the latter responsible for rescuing the likes of Jacula and Antonius Rex from oblivion started to re-issue many of the classic albums.
As a consequence RPI has not only reached a new generation of fans, but the increased interest and appreciation have led to new material being released. Artists whose recordings have never been in circulation, bands that are as new to our ears as they are to many of those who were there when it happened, now have a new-found audience creating an ironic worm-hole effect: brand new music straight from prog's golden years. With the revival clearly under way the 90s produced some stellar Italian albums and the beginning of CD reissue fever.
In the s the trend has continued to a much more successful degree. Italian progressive rock today covers a wide range of styles and influences, but many of the bands ground a portion of their sound in the RPI tradition. Moreover, this first decade of the 21st century has seen a new round of publications both in print and in electronic format covering various aspects of Italian prog, as well as the creation of a number of excellent websites dedicated to the subgenre, which are extremely influential as regards the promotion of new bands and artists.
The commercial success of RPI has always been modest compared to the big bands from other countries. Together with his beloved Julia, he hazards his life in a deadly match against the powers that be. It is a fantasy of the political future, and like any such fantasy, serves its author as a magnifying device for an examination of the present. Gary John Bishop. If you are, Gary John Bishop has the answer. I am wired to win. I got this.
I embrace the uncertainty. I am not my thoughts; I am what I do. I am relentless. I expect nothing and accept everything. The 48 Laws of Power. Robert Greene. Amoral, cunning, ruthless, and instructive, this multi-million-copy New York Times bestseller is the definitive manual for anyone interested in gaining, observing, or defending against ultimate control — from the author of The Laws of Human Nature.
Every law, though, has one thing in common: an interest in total domination. In a bold and arresting two-color package, The 48 Laws of Power is ideal whether your aim is conquest, self-defense, or simply to understand the rules of the game. Secouez-vous Acheter le dernier livre de Mark Manson. Charlotte Poussin. Survivre aux parents toxiques. Julie Arcoulin. Qui veut jouer avec moi? Lawrence J. Jouer pour mieux communiquer avec nos enfants Vous ne savez pas comment faire pour obtenir de votre enfant ce que vous lui demandez?
Les formules magiques : Devenez votre propre mage Claude Deplace. Avec cet ouvrage, vous deviendrez votre propre "mage".
Comment se faire des amis. Dale Carnegie. Esther Hicks. Dans ce livre, Esther et Jerry Hicks vous expliquent comment mettre en oeuvre la Loi de l'Attraction. Vous comprendrez ainsi que tout ce qui advient dans votre existence, que vous l'ayez voulu ou non, n'est pas le fruit du hasard mais l'effet direct de cette Loi, parmi les plus puissantes de l'Univers.
Il identifie le mal et le neutralise. Les couleurs les plus courantes, sont l'argile blanche, la grise et la verte. Certains recommandent la blanche pour l'usage interne et la verte pour l'usage externe. En fait l'argile grise conviendra parfaitement pour l'usage interne et externe, tandis que la verte sera excellente pour les cataplasmes en usage externe.
Je pense trop : Comment canaliser ce mental envahissant. Christel Petitcollin. Je veux grossir: Oui c'est possible! Marie Bach. Comment faire quand l'aiguille de la balance ne veut pas osciller vers la droite? Comment gagner les kilos qui changeraient tout?
Je veux grossir, Oui c'est possible! Shizuto Masunaga. Pre-order now, enjoy later. Is it truly possible to defy destiny and live a quiet life? The problem is, only the hero can actually fell demons.
Unfortunately, the only way to test this new magic is in a real battle! Seth Wickersham. Stephanie Grisham. ReDawn Skyward Flight: Novella 2.
Brandon Sanderson. From 1 bestselling author Brandon Sanderson and Janci Patterson comes the second of three Skyward series novellas, each told from the perspective of a different member of the team back on Detritus.
Read Alanik's story between Starsight and Cytonic. What she found there was a shock—a whole planet of free humans fighting against the Superiority. Were they the allies her people desperately needed? When she recovered from her injuries and met the friendly humans Jorgen and FM of Skyward Flight, she found that her warning to Spensa had gone unheeded by the government of Detritus, and they were considering a peace overture from the Superiority. Now having returned to ReDawn, Alanik is dismayed to learn that her own people are falling into the exact same trap.
Sanderson plainly had a ball with this nonstop, highflying opener, and readers will too. David Baldacci. For her entire life, FBI agent Atlee Pine has been searching for her twin sister, Mercy, who was abducted at the age of six and never seen again. Though Atlee is tantalizingly close to her family at last, the final leg of her long road to Mercy will be the most treacherous yet.
Mercy left at least one dead body behind before fleeing her captors years before. Atlee has no idea if her sister is still alive, and if so, how she has been surviving all this time. When the truth is finally revealed, Atlee Pine will face the greatest danger yet, and it may well cost her everything.
After all, every guild needs a home. Though their guild is still small, the girls and their friends are excited to have a place to meet, train, and grow—especially now that the newly minted guilds are all going to be facing off in the next big event! This is the birth of the legendary Maple Tree, the guild whose name strikes fear into the hearts of all who hear it! Diana Gabaldon. The past may seem the safest place to be. Jamie Fraser and Claire Randall were torn apart by the Jacobite Rising inand it took them twenty years to find each other again.
Now the American Revolution threatens to do the same. Having the family together is a dream the Frasers had thought impossible. Yet even in the North Carolina backcountry, the effects of war are being felt. Brianna and Roger have their own worry: that the dangers that provoked their escape from the twentieth century might catch up to them. Sometimes they question whether risking the perils of the s—among them disease, starvation, and an impending war—was indeed the safer choice for their family.
And with the family finally together, Jamie and Claire have more at stake than ever before. Livre 3. From the 1 New York Times bestselling author of the Reckoners series, the Mistborn trilogy, and the Stormlight Archive comes the third book in an epic series about a girl who will travel beyond the stars to save the world she loves from destruction.
She proved herself one of the best starfighters in the human enclave of Detritus and she saved her people from extermination at the hands of the Krell—the enigmatic alien species that has been holding them captive for decades.
Now, the Superiority—the governing galactic alliance bent on dominating all human life—has started a galaxy-wide war. Ancient, mysterious alien forces that can wipe out entire planetary systems in an instant. A week later, after setting a condom on fire which they had hung on a nail at the Bambi Kino where they had been livingMcCartney and Pete Best were arrested for arson and deported.
The reunited group played an engagement on December 17th at the Casbah Club, with Chas Newby on bass. Gibson ships Les Paul Bursts before ceasing production of the model.
The model is described in the Gibson catalog as the Les Paul Standard. In September, the FCC banned Payola — the common practice of record companies paying radio disc jockeys to play their new releases. The payment was not always in dollars. Searle is the first and only pharmaceutical company to sell an oral contraceptive and gain a lucrative monopoly. The pharmaceutical industry suddenly awoke to the substantial market for effective contraception and 13 major drug companies nine of them American began work to develop their own versions of the Pill.
The sexual revolution began. Kennedy by Executive Order Eichmann was charged with 15 counts of war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership in a hostile organization.
The charges accused Eichmann of being responsible for the enslavement, starvation, persecution, transportation and murder of millions of Jews as well as the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Poles and Gypsies. The trial was intended to shed light on the horror and reality of the Holocaust. The resulting press helped educate the world about the Third Reich. Three judges found Eichmann guilty on all 15 counts.
On December 15th, Eichmann was sentenced to death see April 12th: The Soviets launched the first man into space. On the spacecraft Vostok 1, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to enter space and the first to orbit the Earth.
Kennedy became president, The Bay of Pigs Invasion began. The Cuban armed forces trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations defeated the invaders within thee days. When the Berliners awoke, they found themselves settled on the side of the border they had slept on. The Berlin Wall stood for nearly 3 decades. September 26th: Television presented the first Presidential debates for public scrutiny and entertainment, Richard M. Nixon vs John F. FM broadcasts begin in the United States.
A new Les Paul Standard is introduced by Gibson. The double-cutaway design will later be renamed the Les Paul SG. Here he transformed himself from a singer to a songwriter. He wrote the tune at age 19 in For those that could manage to learn and play it well, it was a passport to folk club bookings. May 29th: Adolf Eichmann was hanged, cremated and his ashes scattered at sea. Stuart Sutcliffe dies from a brain hemorrhage. September: James Meredith won a lawsuit to secure admission to the segregated University of Mississippi.
He first tried to enter the campus on September 20th, then the 25th, and again on the 26th. Johnson, Jr. Students and other whites began rioting that afternoon. They threw rocks and fired on the U. Marshals guarding Meredith at Lyceum Hall.
Two people, including a French journalist, were killed; 28 marshals had gunshot wounds, and others were injured. Kennedy responded by sending regular US Army forces to restore law and order. Meredith began classes the day after the troops arrived. During the Cold War and following the Bay of Pigs Operation, the Cuban and Soviet governments secretly began to build bases in Cuba for medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles giving them the ability to strike most of the continental United States.
By late there were more than U. On October 14th an Air Force U-2 plane established photographic proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba. The period that followed is generally regarded as the time the Cold War was closest to becoming a nuclear conflict. It also marked the first instance of the threat of Mutual Assured Destruction M.
The U. Through secret communications initiated by Khrushchev, a proposal evolved to resolve the crisis. The confrontation ended on October 28th when President John F. The Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba subject to United Nations verification — in exchange for a US agreement never to invade Cuba. Secretly, the US also agreed to dismantle all U. The blockade ended at pm EDT on November 20th. An additional result of the crisis was a Hotline Agreement and a direct communications link between Moscow and Washington, D.
The album was recorded in front of a live audience in the Decca studio. Kennedy that day. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22nd in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime but was murdered two days later by Jack Ruby before he could be put on trial. Kennedy was shot. By the end of the first week of release, the album had sold more thancopies.
The way was clear for the Beatles to launch an American tour. Chuck Berry was released from prison. The Twist craze was diminishing and record companies began to shift toward the surf music boom. Martin Luther King, Jr. Estimates of the number of participants varied frompolice to overleaders of the march. The song became an anthem for the Civil Rights Movement.
This was the first pickup suitable for acoustic guitar. Billboard Chart. It held that position for sven weeks. The single sold 1, copies in the first two weeks.
February 7th: The Beatles took off for the United States. Approximately 74, viewers — almost half of the American population — watched the group perform on the show. Sam Cooke is shot and beaten to death by a motel manager in Los Angeles. Cooke, wearing only a sport coat and shoes, was chasing a young woman who had fled his room with his clothes after he had assaulted her. He was pronounced dead when police arrived.
Spector refused to cut the song to the under 3-minute time required for radio. Instead, the last two digits of the running time were reversed to appear as It took programming directors weeks to discover why shows were suddenly running long. The music was a compilation of styles he had absorbed in his many travels including the study of the Arab oud.
To deal with the mystique and modal approach of the oud, he devised the open tuning DADGAD, now common in acoustic folk music. Early solid-state preamplifiers are released in Japan, manufactured by Nippon Gakki Yamaha. Dolby A noise reduction is developed for the professional recording market by Dolby laboratories, reducing the background hiss on tape recordings. The audience did not respond well.
It was the beginning of an international trend that was picked up by many of the fashion designers of the day, including Yves St. The new Mod look seemed a natural extension of fashion following the development of the birth control pill.
Squier Company, and also acquired Electro-Music Inc. The group was manufactured by producers at NBC and fed carefully crafted hit songs that were heavily promoted on radio and the new music media — television. The Pre-Fab Four were very successful. FOIA is a federal law allowing the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government. The Act went into effect the following year. Louis published the research of William H.
Masters and Virginia E. Johnson, Human Sexual Response. Evidence emerged of a new disease in the United States. The symptoms would later be related to earlier records from the Congo. The virus had not been isolated nor named.
Charles Kaman had developed groundbreaking helicopter technologies and turned his creative juices toward guitars.
He felt that guitars Album) be improved by a different body cavity made of Lyrachord a version of fiberglass. The new round backed instruments hit a chord with the space-race conscious public and Ovation Guitars were born. This was the first widely promoted festival of Rock Music and regarded as the beginning of the Summer of Love. The festival helped place California at the center of the music counterculture and became a template for future rock festivals.
June 12th: The U. Supreme Court unanimously ended laws against interracial marriage. Clive Davis became president of Columbia records. Inspired by what he witnessed and heard, he began to sign Folk-Rock and Rock bands to Columbia. He viewed the new sound as the Album) of popular music.
Columbia doubled its market share within three years. June 17th: After only 26 months of development, China successfully detonated a hydrogen bomb. The estimated viewing audience was , McLuhan was a professor of English literature, a literary critic, a rhetorician and a communication theorist. On July 23rd, Detroit police vice squad officers executed a raid on an after-hours drinking club in the predominantly black neighborhood at 12th Street and Clairmount Avenue. They found 82 people holding a party for two returning Vietnam veterans.
The officers arrested everyone at the scene. As the police left, a small group lifted up the bars of an adjacent clothing store and broke the windows. The vandalism expanded to looting and arson.
Fires spread through the Northwest end of Detroit and then crossed to the East end. Within 48 hours, the National Guard was called out. By the fourth day of riots, the 82nd airborne joined the fray.
The violence escalated as the police and military attempted to regain control of the city. By the end of five days of rioting, 43 people were dead, 1, injured and over 7, had been arrested. August 27th: Beatles Manager Brian Epstein died from a drug overdose at the age of August 27th: President Lyndon Johnson established the Kerner Commission to attempt to understand cause the race riots. Johnson signed a bill creating the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
November 13th: The first black mayor of a major American city was elected: Carl Stokes, the 51st mayor of Cleveland, Ohio. Play it real pretty. Williams was at the time the head comedy writer for the popular Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. The music was written and performed by Williams, backed by the Wrecking Crew in LA and arranged by Mike Post who is said to have written the middle horn break. He was the front runner for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
Sheffield Labs markets records made by direct cutting for higher sound quality. Dolby B magnetic tape noise reduction system was released for the consumer market making cassette tapes practical for reasonably high fidelity recordings. If he would do that, Jacobs would put it into full rotation at the influential station, pretty much guaranteeing a hit. By artistic integrity or pure stubbornness, Webb refused to shorten the 7 minutes, second song.
The song generated such a buzz that within a week KHJ relented and added it to their rotation. Within a month it rose to 2 nationally. It was the first album the Beatles released under their own label Apple and the largest selling double album of all time.
It was a lunchtime concert on January 30th that lasted 42 minutes in the cold winter wind, and was conceived as a filming opportunity for the climax of the Film Let it Be. Billy Preston joined them on keyboards. The concert was broken up by the police as a disturbance of the peace. Cambodia was recognized as a neutral country at the time. President Nixon had called for the bombings, bypassing the normal chain of command.
On July 20th Astronaut Neil Armstrong was the first human to walk on the moon. White Lake is part of the town of Bethel, 43 miles Southwest of Woodstock. The gathering was estimated atAugust 9th: The notion of a peaceful counterculture came to an abrupt end.
Polanski, was in London working on a film project. All five were murdered. They too were brutally murdered. The term came from the song of the same name by the Beatles. At age 47, Jack Kerouac died from internal bleeding due to long-standing alcohol abuse.
ECL then changed its name to Norlin Inc. So began the era characterized by corporate mismanagement and low-quality products; similar to the period of Fender ownership by CBS. The Altamont Speedway Free Festival suffered considerable violence including one homicide and three accidental deaths. The stage was only four feet high. The crowds were not peaceful, and drug use and lack of facilities contributed to the unrest. Ironically, the Grateful Dead never played due to the level of violence and there were four births on-site during the day at the festival.
A single individual became infected with HIV in Haiti and brought the infection to the United States sometime during The genetic make-up of that particular strain of the HIV virus appears to be the one that initially spread rapidly through the high-risk portions of American society — gay men and intravenous drug users.
Within a few years, the infection found its way into all aspects of society. Roy Clark brought the 5-string banjo back to popularity at the same venue.
The era of the singer-songwriter had begun. Four students were killed, nine wounded, and one of the nine wounded was paralyzed for life. Some of those hit were simply watching the protest. The event was the culmination of four days of increasing tension since the Nixon announcement of the Cambodian incursion. On May 5th there was a nation-wide student strike on most college campuses protesting the extension of the war and the killing of the Kent State students.
The estimated numbers of students, faculty and administrators involved were 4, On October 27, Congress passed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act ofwhich, among other things, categorized controlled substances based on their medicinal use and potential for addiction.
Schedule III through V have less severe warnings or descriptions and subsequently, fewer restrictions. He was obsessed with the song and was certain it carried a political message.
David E. Blackmer developed dbx noise reduction for magnetic tape systems. The process would virtually eliminate tape noise from recordings. Duane Allman of the Allman Brothers Band lost control of his Harley Davidson motorcycle and crashed while trying to avoid a construction vehicle that made an abrupt stop. He was declared dead at the scene. Upon returning to their apartment, they took heroin and Courson nodded off. He snorted it, starting a bad internal reaction. Ultimately, he hemorrhaged to death while Courson slept.
June President Nixon declares a War on Drugs. June The 26th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was passed allowing year-olds to vote.
July 1: Louis Armstrong died of a heart attack at age August 1st saw the birth of large-scale benefit concerts. The Concert for Bangladesh provided relief for the combined disaster of the Bhola cyclonelives lost and the starving refugees of the Bangladesh Liberation War. The concert was organized by George Harrison and Ravi Shankar. Large sums were raised but Apple manager Allen Klein had neglected to register the event for tax-exempt status. He never returns.
The prisoners had held the prison for four days to seek redress for a host of grievances. Governor Nelson Rockefeller had refused to meet with them. December Gloria Steinem publishes the first issue of MS magazine. It eventually became clear that the men were connected to the Committee to re-elect the President by a slush fund. He bought seven of them.
He had seen photos of several of his blues influences playing them and reckoned that they would make good gifts for his friends Steve Winwood, Pete Townshend, and George Harrison. He gave away the cleanest three of them and picked over the remaining four for parts; taking what he liked from each and assembling a personal Stratocaster that would come to be known as Blackie, his main guitar for the next 12 years. January 22nd: Roe v. Wade — U. There were also rumors of drug use.
Richard M. Nixon was elected to a second term as President of the United States. Following the session with Floyd, they were packing their cars with their instruments when Clarence was hit by a drunken driver and dragged up the street about 20 feet.
He died the next day. You can take me to the desert and burn me. I want to go out in a cloud of smoke. On October 17th, Arab nations began an oil embargo on the United States in an effort to raise oil prices and attempt to alter the American support of Israel.
Augustino LoPrinzi quit the company and opened a new guitar manufacturing facility next door in Rosemont New Jersey. Working with luthier Richard Schneider he developed a new approach to bracing the instruments. All other aspects of the construction were also affected. Clive Davis became the president of Arista records after taking the time to write his memoirs.
He continued his long history of recognizing and signing major talents to the new label. President Richard M. Nixon resigned his office on August 9th facing near-certain impeachment in the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate for conspiring to cover up the Watergate Break-in of He was succeeded by Gerald Ford who eventually issued a full pardon. President Nixon is the only President to date to resign his office.
Between and production of Gibson guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo to Nashville Tennessee. Quality of the early instruments built in Nashville was plagued by climate-control problems in the humid South and inexperienced workers. The Kalamazoo plant was temporarily kept operating as the Gibson Custom Shop. He was found unresponsive, naked on his bathroom floor and was pronounced dead at pm at Baptist Memorial Hospital.
United States copyright law was amended to give artists the right to regain legal rights to their work 35 years after January 1st, It is expected that record companies will litigate when the time comes to retain the rights. There is a lot at stake: at one of the four major record companies; the back catalog constitutes 90 percent of their income. The first test tube baby is born in the United Kingdom.
The small cassette player could be carried in a pocket and used with small headphones. A new market was born. Lennon was pronounced dead upon arrival at the emergency room of the Roosevelt Hospital at pm.
Lennon was cremated and his ashes spread over the area of Central Park, where the Strawberry Fields memorial now stands. Chapman remains in prison where he has been repeatedly denied parole. AMF Corporation gave up trying to make money building guitars. This was the birth of the World Wide Web www. The first cases were a cluster of intravenous drug users and homosexual men who showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PCPa rare opportunistic infection that was known to only occur in people with very compromised immune systems.
This made cassette tape sound very similar in quality to records. Unfortunately, CDs were released the same year. MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface was defined as an industry-standard protocol enabling electronic musical instruments including keyboards to communicate with computers.
A MIDI trigger could generate any sound sample or waveform within a computer program that could then be directed to an amplifier and speakers. Michael Jackson releases the album Thriller which quickly became the largest selling album in history, topping 25 million sold. Barney Clark receives the Jarvik-7 artificial heart implanted by Dr. William DeVries. Clark lived for days. The Rock and Roll Foundation was created on April 20th, but had no place to call home for several more years.
Two separate research groups published their findings in the same issue of the journal Science. It would not be until that the research community would agree on a name for their discoveries — Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV. The awards were statuettes of an astronaut with an American flag on the moon. The event was hosted by Bette Midler and Dan Aykroyd.
Gibson sold off its original manufacturing facilities in Kalamazoo Michigan. A group of Gibson Kalamazoo employees led by former Gibson plant manager Jim Deurloo acquired the old factories and a new line of instruments emerged; Heritage Guitars, based upon some original Gibson designs.
The sale was completed in March. CBS did not make it easy for the new owners — they sold the Fullerton, California factories separately. Fender was forced to start from scratch. Eric Clapton retired his Fender Stratocaster Blackie from service after 12 years of using it as his main guitar, following his world tour.
Madonna launched her first major tour, The Virgin Tour. Suzanne Vega released her debut album of the same name. She would later, inopen the first Lilith Fair show. Day was established as a US National Holiday after considerable debate and over significant opposition.
Juszkiewicz, David H.
Who Wears These Shoes? - Elton John - Breaking Hearts (Cassette, Album), Arschgeleckt - Chainbreaker - Hetzjagd Im Nichts (Vinyl, LP), Stink Nugget Hot Lunch - Ebola (26), Sewer Chewer - Ebola / Sewer Chewer (Cassette), Torso - Gate (5) - This Is Grind! (Cassette), Sedulous (Equateur Remix), Stay With Me Baby - Lita Ford & Bonfire - Collection Of Albums 1983-1994 / 1986-1999 (CD), Mississippi Mildred - Jelly Roll Morton - The Complete Jelly Roll Morton Volumes 5/6 (1929-1930) (Vi, Rita MacNeil - Rita (Vinyl, LP), Cruising, 1993 After Hours #01, Kopų Bliuzas - Egidijus Sipavičius Ir Grupė* - Tėtė Šoka Bugi (Cassette, Album), Blackstone Feat. Tuff Inc. - State Of Mind (Vinyl), Happy Xmas (War Is Over) - Various - Absolute Christmas (CD), Tygers Of Pan Tang - Live In The Roar (CD, Album), Ale Te Mangen Me Penja = Došli Su Da Prose Moju Sestru - Ibrahim Šemsi - Ale Te Mangen Me Penja (Vin