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It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type.
Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air. As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio. Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the s and s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era.
Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on, making it possible to improve the damping of spurious resonances.
Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around and the velocity or ribbon microphone in Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications. Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version.
This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General Electric in the s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems. There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast.
The intent of the new Western Electric system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback.
The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing. Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback. Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time.
Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system. Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the Jam Factory (3) - Jam Factory Vol.2 (Vinyl) irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing. Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering. Audio response was claimed out to 8, Hz, later 13, Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli.
Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business. Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia incame from wide range radio transcription practices.
The use of vinyl pressings, increased length of programming, and general improvement in audio quality over 78 rpm records were the major selling points. Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records. The LP record for longer works, 45 rpm for pop music, and FM radio became high fidelity program sources in demand. Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales.
The industry flourished. Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. There were ten major evolutionary steps that improved LP production and quality during a period of approximately forty years.
At the time of the introduction of the compact disc CD inthe stereo LP pressed in vinyl was at the high point of its development. Still, it continued to suffer from a variety of limitations:. Audiophiles have differed over the relative merits of the LP versus the CD since the digital disc was introduced.
Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have eliminated perceived problems observed with very early CD players. There is a theory that vinyl records can audibly represent higher frequencies than compact discs, though most of this is noise and not relevant to human hearing. According to Red Book specificationsthe compact disc has a frequency response of 20 Hz up to 22, Hz, and most CD players measure flat within a fraction of a decibel from at least 0 Hz to 20 kHz at full output.
Due to the distance required between grooves, it is not possible for an LP to reproduce as low frequencies as a CD. Additionally, turntable rumble and acoustic feedback obscures the low-end limit of vinyl but the upper end can be, with some cartridges, reasonably flat within a few decibels to 30 kHz, with gentle roll-off.
Carrier signals of Quad LPs popular in the s were at 30 kHz to be out of the range of human hearing. The average human auditory system is sensitive to frequencies from 20 Hz to a maximum of around 20, Hz. High frequency sensitivity decreases as a person ages, a process called presbycusis. For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the "master disc" at the recording studio.
From about on earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tapewhich could then be processed or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc. A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft waxand later a harder lacquer was used. The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound Jam Factory (3) - Jam Factory Vol.2 (Vinyl) affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation.
As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible. They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a Jam Factory (3) - Jam Factory Vol.2 (Vinyl) format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording.
For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player  to transfer 78s. Anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable Jam Factory (3) - Jam Factory Vol.2 (Vinyl), a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer. However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters.
As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format. This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback.
This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs. Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tapethe 8-track cartridgeand the compact cassette. The widespread popularity of Sony's Walkman was a factor that contributed to the vinyl's lessening usage in the s. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between and when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles.
First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns.
Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes.
Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants. This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies.
In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today,  especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophilescollectorsand DJs. Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over.
See Record collecting. Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl. In the United Kingdom, the popularity of indie rock caused sales of new vinyl records particularly 7 inch singles to increase significantly in  briefly reversing the downward trend seen during the s.
In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available. This is because for disc jockeys "DJs"vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium. DJ techniques such as slip-cueingbeatmatchingand scratching originated on turntables. With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e.
With a record one can Jam Factory (3) - Jam Factory Vol.2 (Vinyl) the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record playerand record itself are built to withstand it.
Figures released in the United States in early showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled inwith 1. Sales have continued to rise into the s, with around 2. InTaylor Swift soldcopies of her ninth studio album Evermore on vinyl. The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since Nielsen started tracking vinyl sales in The sales record was previously held by Jack White who sold 40, copies of his second solo release, Lazarettoon vinyl in Inthe sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year.
Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. According to the RIAA 's midyear report inphonograph record revenues surpassed those of CDs for the first time since the s. VinylVideo is a format to store a low resolution black and white video on a vinyl record alongside encoded audio.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gramophone record. For the magazine, see Phonograph Record magazine. Disc-shaped vinyl analog sound storage medium. Play media. Video of a spring-motor-driven 78 rpm acoustic non-electronic gramophone playing a shellac record. See also: LP record. Further information: High fidelity. Main article: Laser turntable. See also: Comparison of recording media. Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Broken Record disambiguation. Further information: Analog recording vs.
Further information: Production of phonograph records. See also: Vinyl revival. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Archived at the Wayback Machine. Kitchener — Waterloo Record — Kitchener, Ont. Archived from the original on Wired UK. Retrieved Metrication Matters. Information Week. The New York Times. The talking phonograph. Scientific American, 14 December, LIFE : 87— Music Educators JournalVol.
The Recording and Reproduction of Sound revised and enlarged 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Howard W. London: British Library. Archived PDF from the original on The New York TimesFebruary 23,p. Archived at the Wayback Machine Front page. All 8-inch discs have such stamps on them. Cambridge University Press. University Press of Florida. ISBN Peyton's Big Damn Band". Oxford University Press.
Walker Spalding, Lincolnshire: The Authors. London: The British Library. Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. ISSN New York: Billboard Publishing Co. Sound recording: the life story of a technology. Greenwood technographies. JHU Press. Audio signal processing and coding. American record guidep. This compander exists in two identically named but slightly different versions; only one of them has a dedicated "Disk" setting, the other one instead has an additional setting to combine subsonic with MPX filtering.
In this model, High-Com II encoded vinyl disks have to be played back through the "Rec" setting of a connected tape deck. Bizet Carmen prelude  2. Rimsky-Korsakov Procession of the Nobles from Mlada  3. Brahms Hungarian Dance No. Sextet Sherman Martin Austin : 1. Impressions John Coltrane  2. Mimosa Dennis Irwin  3.
Little B's Poem Bobby Hutcherson  4. The result is High-Com IIthe world's finest two-band noise-reduction system. There is no residual hiss ; the ticks, pops, and crackles that mar conventional discs are absent. So is turntable rumble. The loud passages emerge with unprecedented clarity since they need not be recorded at so high and distortion-producing a level.
This common fault of noise-reduction systems has been eliminated in High-Com II. Listen also to High-Com II's remarkable ability to accurately preserve musical transients. They are neither muted nor exaggerated nor edgy as with other companders. This accuracy of reproduction—on all types of music, at all frequencies, and at all levels—is what distinguishes High-Com II from other noise-reduction systems.
Low-level signals are processed for maximum noise reduction, high-level ones for minimum distortion. This sophisticated technique assumes maximum dynamic range with minimum "breathing" and other audible side effects.
Sound without breathing, pumping, or other ill side effects. Includes a description of the UC compander system. Written at Dresden, Germany. According to the author he later also developed an improved version utilizing more modern ICs. Lexikon Imprint Verlag. Die Expansion erfolgt spiegelverkehrt. Vermutlich aus diesem Grund hat man auf eine weithin sichtbare Kennzeichnung der mit diesem Verfahren aufgenommenen Platten verzichtet. Bis dahin gibt es aber noch eine Schwierigkeit.
Also shows a picture of the "U" engraving in the silent inner groove indicating UC encoded vinyl disks. Aardvark Mastering. The Vinyl Factory. The Talking Machine Review International. Ernie Bayly, Bournemouth 38 : — Record Industry Association of America Inc. The Record Collectors Guild. Album cover for Joy Division, Closer. Museum of Modern Art. Cassell Illustrated. ISBN Retrieved 23 August Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s. Pantheon Books. ISBN X. The Encyclopedia of Popular Music 5th concise ed.
Omnibus Press. In Brackett, Nathan ; Hoard, Christian eds. In Weisbard, Eric ; Marks, Craig eds. Spin Alternative Record Guide. Vintage Books. Archived from the original on 19 July Young men in dark silhouettes, some darker than others, looking inwards, looking out, discovering the same horror and describing it with the same dark strokes of gothic rock.
Smash Hits. Melody Maker. Retrieved 21 March — via Rock's Backpages. The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 20 September Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 19 August Acclaimed Music. Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 10 February
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