The walls of the mine are normally black, like the rocks at the right of the photo. The soil around Kalgoorlie is red desert sand. So what colour is water that has rushed over this red sand? It's reddish brown. Thus the gigantic brown flow pouring into the pit in the centre of the image is a massive waterfall, as are the other streams of brown to the left of the photo. Just to give you a sense of proportion, the black cylinder at the bottom of the pit LHS is a tank which is about the height of a house I think.

The entire pit down to the entrance of the actual mine is m almost yards deep. Isn't that amazing? Don't you love it when God confirms major decisions, which have been made with much prayer seeking His wisdom? As I've written about ad nauseum this past few weeks, Jeff applied for, was offered, accepted and then on Tuesday evening signed a contract for, the job as Pastor of BCC.

All this has taken place very quickly, but not without a lot of prayer as we earnestly sought God's will for Jeff's future work in ministering to God's people. To be honest, there weren't many other options immediately apparent when Jeff found out that the UC wouldn't accept his application.

Most of the positions were either in places where we couldn't see ourselves going eg the remote North West of this state or in types of ministry which Jeffrey did not feel would make a good fit for him such as being a Youth Pastor. The only other possibly suitable position Unhurt World - Friend N Fellow - Fairy Godmother (CD heard of was only being discussed as hearsay, wasn't known about by others in that denomination when we asked, and had never been formally advertised.

Jeff didn't feel the denomination would be the right fit for his personality either, although we have a lot of respect for several pastors we know from it, and no questions about their doctrine. Then this morning, less than 48 hours after Jeff signed the contract with BCC, what should pop into his email box? Information about an official job vacancy for the job we had heard rumours about. Now some people, I am sure, would read the ad and start to second guess themselves, wondering whether they had made the right decision.

But from our perspective, coming so soon after Jeff signed the contract, it is a wonderful confirmation that Jeff did indeed make the right choice to become the Pastor at BCC.

This other job could have been advertised a month earlier, I am sure, and then Jeff may have felt more pressure to apply to a position in a denomination which he does not feel comfortable for him. As it is, he never felt that pressure because the job was not officially available. But now the ad is out there for the person who God does want to fill this other job, to see it and respond.

So I am thankful for this email. It really is kinda neat when you see God's hand so obviously at work in your own circumstances. For the past year we have been sharing Bible stories with our children in our Family Circle Time.

We started at Christmas with the beginning of the gospels, worked our way through the NT narrative, and then turned to the OT narrative. The plan was to work our way through quickly enough not covering everything to be at the end of the OT ready to begin with the nativity narrative again at Christmaswhich is fast approaching. As the kids get older and are familiar with more stories we will probably go slower through the Bible.

Or perhaps we will take our children through the Bible at a slower rate individually, reading chapter by chapter through with them one-to-one so they can be trained in the skills of individual Bible study. We'll see as they get older I guess. You might have noticed, or perhaps not, that we've been so slack with Family Circle Time lately that I haven't even been including it in the last two so-called Weekly Reports that I've done, covering the past month.

I talked to Jeff about how I do want to cover the major events of the second half of the OT, even if only very very briefly this year before Christmas. Then we'll head in to our pre-Christmas Circle Times. Last year we began with Isaiah's prophecy of the virgin who would give birth to a son, to be called "Immanuel", which means "God [is] with us".

Our memory verse before Christmas was Isaiah Then we read about Zechariah and Elizabeth's pregnancy and the birth of their son John, who was born while Mary was pregnant with Jesus. The focus was on the miraculous nature of these births, and that they were part of God's plan which He was bringing to fruition and openly proclaiming as the work of His own hands.

This year, our focus is again going to be on Jesus' birth as a fulfilment of prophecy. Also on the idea that Jesus came to make a way for the people's faithful allegiance to be in the One True God, rather than in men or pagan idols. I will be his father, and he will be my son. He will stand and shepherd his flock If I can get the last week's pages organised this afternoon, I will get the kids' Make-Your-Own Bible story books bound tomorrow or Friday.

Their Circle Time folders are absolutely bursting! They can colour the last few pages after it's already bound and that's one less thing to organise before our move and Christmas. Two of the Elders from BCC came around to our house last night and, after taking us through Jeff's contract for two hours, Jeff and the elders signed it. I am so looking forward to this new adventure!

That Sunday we will just join the congregation at the service, and then on the 8th Jeff will have his "Commendation" ceremony where we are formally introduced to the congregation at the service before their monthly Fellowship Lunch. Jeff will preach for the first time a fortnight later. It seems like the Elders have really thought through how they want to introduce Jeff to the congregation so I am really pleased about that - it shows they will be great guides for him as he adjusts to this new job and works out how he can best fit with the congregation to serve them.

The Elders will be announcing Jeff's appointment to the position this Sunday, so I need to get a family photo ready before then. On Monday, Jeff rang the agent for the house in the block behind the church twice and was able to obtain about 40 photos via email even though we couldn't immediately schedule an inspection because it's still tenanted.

After poring over these for hours well, that was me, not JeffJeff put in an application for the house yesterday morning. Apparently there was a bad tenant previously who did not care for the garden hence they have decided on the need for a professional, but we have offered to pay an extra garden-specific bond to cover the eventuality that we should not keep it to the same standard as when we move in if we move in!

Jeff made the point to the agent that he has a back injury that is covered by compensation that provides a gardener if he is physically unable to take care of the garden, so it would make more sense for that to pay for the gardener if we really can't take care of it.

I am really hoping that we will be able to rent this property and at a reduced price. It has a bore, so keeping the lawns green won't be a problem with water restrictions. When we met with the elders last night, they were very enthusiastic about the possibility of us moving so near to the church.

And it has floor boards in every room other than the play room at the back of the house which has what looks like quite sturdy carpet. Not a hair of shag pile in sight! Wherever we end up moving, I'll post pictures as soon as we get the essentials unpacked.

Now I just have to make a To Do List for the move. Lotsa lotsa stuff to do! The topic for the conference is "Music with Meaning" and it is aimed at those involved in Music or Children's Ministry with their church, school or beach mission.

The conference will be aimed at parents. My workshop is titled "Integrating children's music and church music" and I am writing it at the moment, working with another lady who is experienced in the music side of things to supplement my knowledge of and experience with children.

Having noticed that I don't seem to post too much of anything on Tuesdays for some unknown reason, I have decided to post my workshop draft in dribs and drabs over the up-coming "Tuneful Tuesdays" and whoever wants to comment and help me improve the draft before it becomes the final version will be welcome and appreciated for their efforts.

So here is the introduction Helping children participate in music with the entire congregation When children join in with congregational singing, they are joining in with the body of the church in a powerful way.

Singing songs with well-chosen lyrics helps the congregation verbally express their thoughts and feelings about God and to God. When children sing along in the presence of adults who are also singing Christian songs, they to learn how to express their own emotions about and towards God in a manner that honours God: in praise, thanksgiving, repentance and yearning. When children are able to sing along with the wider congregation, they learn from experience that they belong to the church as important members along with the adults; they are not merely part of some separate group who happened to come to the church building together.

Making congregational music understandable and meaningful When children join in with congregational singing, they are exposed to words and phrases that enable them to both clarify and express theological thoughts in a clear acknowledgement of Biblical truth.

In their use of specifically Christian words, which may not be familiar to them from their Children's Ministry or family's discipleship, they are being given entrance to one part of the Christian Life, that of using words to relate and respond to God Himself. When well understood, these words can later be used by the child in the context of spoken prayer and discussion, and need not be restricted to their use in song.

Of course, this is only true insofar as the words are either explained or used in the lyrics in a way that enables their meaning to be grasped by the children as they sing them. Now that we know where Jeff will be working next year, we need to organise to move house.

At the moment we rent a house about a 30 min drive from the church. That would be close enough if we were just joining the congregation, but as the Pastor Jeff will need to be a lot closer. We are hoping to find a suitable house to rent either in the suburb or in one of the adjoining suburbs.

We have a few things we will be looking for in a new house: four bedrooms, or three plus study as that's what the fourth will be. The second and third bedrooms need to be big enough for twin single beds, not just one single bed. Many bedrooms in Perth seem to have room for two beds but do not really when you take into account the way cupboard doors open and where windows are etc.

At the moment all of his wood working stuff takes up the same amount of space as our car in the other half of our garage. We want a fenced back yard or front yard suitable for the kids to run and play in. And I must, must, must have tiles or floor boards or lino or anything other than shag-pile carpeting in the dining room! The carpeting in our dining room in this present house has been a bane of my life for the past almost three years.

We also need enough wall space for all our book cases. I don't want stairs as we've had them in our last two homes and people just fall down them too much, even when it's only two steps down into a sunken lounge like in our present home. I guess it would be great if we were able to have a space for the kids just to be play in, away from the main "hospitality areas" like dining and lounge, that I knew didn't have to have every single toy put away before people to visit.

And I guess from that perspective of hospitality it would be great if it had space for more cars to park than just in the garage. God, please keep me to Your priorities! One is actually pretty much over the back fence from the church and across one street. Not immediately next to the church so people just wander across without thinking, but close enough to be within easy walking distance. Very roomy, lots of parking, neat bore-retic gdns. Gardening and lawnmowing included. Available mid Dec It sounds and looks ideal.

As Mrs T thought as well when she went looking online on our behalf this morning. So we have sent an email off to the agent and are waiting to hear back.

There are a few other houses in the neighbouring suburbs but nothing that stands out as well-suited as this one. We'll be praying about this over the next few days and weeks. I'm not all that worried about it because we have up to two months to move; we could even move after Jeff began work if this was absolutely necessary, but obviously this would not be ideal.

When we moved to Perth we had two weeks to find a place to live in, have our rental application approved, and move in before Jeff began his Greek intensive at college.

And it all got done! And we have been able to stay in this place for the whole three years of college and the rent has remained manageable all that time. I can remember God's kindness and provision to us then and be reassured that He is still watching over us in the same way today. Not that I think He's some sort of magical fairy godmother or anything like that, but I do know He will work all things out for the best for the people whom He has called by His name.

First of all, marry each other. The daddies pick flowers from the garden for the mummies when they have their wedding. Guard each other and feed each other. Mummies born babies and mummies milk babies - they give them milk from their boobies.

Mummies swing kiddies on the swing and daddies do that too. Worshipping God adults and kiddies do this and babies can stay at home with mummies or uncles or aunties or whoever. Cutting trees down with mummies and daddies and kids and babies stay at home and go to bed. Babies go to child care then. That's all. A while ago I posted Joshua's narration of the picture book Tikki Tikki Tembo by Arlene Mosel, which my children enjoyed as part of our studies of Asia.

This morning I found an online recording of an earlier, longer version of the same story. This Chinese fable is by H. Cramer adapted by Paul Wing and told by Paul Wing on the record around or possibly In this one, the boy, whose name is slightly different to the Mosel version, and who is also called Long-Name-No-Can-Say, is stuck in the well because he is too fat, having been spoiled by his over-indulgent parents.

He must get slimmer before he can get out of the well. Joshua and Anna loved it, but be warned that it's not very PC in it's use of stereotypical accents and other elements.

HT: Kadyellebee. Since Samuel did his first wee in the potty, he has done one or two in the right place each day. This Sunday, we were delighted I think my shouts of joy might well have startled the neighbours to find he had done a poo in the potty as well. It might indeed be smooth sailing for toilet training my last one Secondly, thanks for your prayers; we think the interview went very well on Sunday afternoon.

It may have helped that I was in somewhat of an elated mood from the aforementioned potty incident, but that's neither here nor there. The questions were really good ones, not just light fluff. Stuff like to Jeff "Since you have been a member of both the Baptist denomination tending towards Calvinism and the Uniting denomination tending towards Arminianism from it's roots in Methodism where do you stand on the Calvinist-Arminian spectrum?

It was quite rewarding to reflect later upon how close our marriage is that questions like this could be answered without hesitation. The best part of the interview was being told at the end that we will probably know whether Jeff will be offered the position by the end of this week. Album) is a lot quicker than we were expecting, because the selection committee has the power to make the offer, without having to take it to a meeting of the congregation first, as would happen in a Baptist church.

And finally, I've been trying intermittently to lose weight since I finished feeding Samuel a year ago. Having been pregnant or feeding or both continuously since mid, my body was run down and suffering from my lack of self-control in the matter of diet.

With the help of my doctor and a renewed sense of the importance of reaching a healthy weight, I have lost 5kg 11pds in the last five weeks and about 9cm off my waistline and am feeling very proud of myself. Album) am determined to keep my efforts up - and the scales down! It's good to be reminded to thank God for His smaller, everyday mercies, as well as the biggies like salvation. So thank You, God, for these three blessings. Thoughts of Anna's birth have led me to reflect upon my own birth: my second one, whereby I was reborn by the Holy Spirit and became a new creation in Christ.

A while back, Amy asked me to share my testimony. And then our advance warning of questions to be asked for Jeff's interview came in and they are going to ask for my testimony tomorrow as well. So I thought I would use the quiet tonight I'm over at the T family's house babysitting their five lovely children to share some of my testimony with this blog's readers.

Jeff warned me I'll only have about two or three minutes at the interview, but I hope you might have a few more moments than that, my dear reader s??

I'll warn you now, this may well be my longest post ever. My mother is a Christian, but my father is not. Rather, he is an outspoken atheist. He wasn't always quite so outspoken, however, and I do have one memory of him attending a Christmas Eve carols service at Mudamuckla church a tiny building, it would seat perhaps only 30 people. He spent most of the service seeing how artistic he could be with the dripping wax from his candle.

I wonder if perhaps after that Mum thought he needn't bother with the pretence of worshipping with us, even at those annual Christian celebrations of Christmas and Easter. However, my mother was and is a Christian and I often admired and still do her perseverance in her faith in the face of antagonism. I remember watching her place money in the offering plate each Sunday and wondering at her determination to give to the church of God despite Dad's seeming to let us go there on sufferance.

My mother's quiet faith and perseverance in it spoke volumes to me as a teenager and I still reflect upon it today, mostly with gratefulness that, unlike her, I am married to a man who loves God. Dad was content to allow Mum to bring myself and my two brothers up "in the church", although they did choose a family sport which took us away from services every second week during the winter. I was enthusiastic about being a Christian, but sadly I thought Christianity was something you did, rather than something you were.

This caused no end of strife in my later teen years and early adulthood! I am not sure what led me to this erroneous conclusion. I remember having a very lop-sided view of the Holy Spirit as a result, partly, of having listened to a very emotion-rousing speech at a youth event on the need to "have the gift of tongues" as evidence of one's salvation.

I think the lesson I learnt from that was that the Holy Spirit's role in the life of a Christian was merely something to do with helping them pray in an unusual way. I don't remember being told that the Holy Spirit was promised by Jesus to his disciples as the counsellor, who would show them what to say and do in their lives after He ascended to heaven.

Which was unfortunate, really, because I could have worked out the prayer stuff on my own or with a few good examples, anyway but it was the counsel part which I really needed in my own life. I struggled deeply with the idea that I had to live up to a standard of behaviour in order to be a Christian.

By about half way through university, I remember very clearly thinking one day that I couldn't live up to this standard on my own so I wasn't going to bother even "trying" to be a Christian any more. There was a guy involved, but he was just the catalyst for my decision, not the root cause. The problem was that I was a sinner - and I thought I had to be a saint all on my ownwithout any reference to what Jesus Christ had done for me, or what the Holy Spirit would do for me if I only had faith in Jesus' work on my behalf.

My behaviour spiralled down from there, but I won't go into that. Since I no longer had the desire to live up to God's standard, I didn't worry too much when I couldn't. And so I took many small steps which eventually took me a long way from the moral foundations I had once held dear.

At times I went to church with my Mum, then when I went off to Adelaide to do my Grad Dip I went on rare occasions with my brothers, and once or twice with a boyfriend. In my second semester of teaching I was working in a small country town and for some reason I decided to check out the local church and was welcomed.

I even went so far as to join a Bible Study small group for a while, but my heart wasn't in it and I struggled to know what the point was. Upon reflection, I suspect much of my motive was a need to connect with someone who didn't know my boyfriend whom I had split up from after moving to the country to be nearer where he was.

At the end of that year I decided to move back to my parent's place in Darwin and got work at a private high school there. I had emotional wounds to lick in private but my spiritual wounds would only grow Unhurt World - Friend N Fellow - Fairy Godmother (CD. Despite living for a while with my parents again, I didn't go to church with Mum. I moved out with friends after a while. I put a lot of effort into my work most of my teaching time was with ESL Aboriginal kids who had come to the school as boarders from remote rural communities.

I also spent a lot of time reading pagan books looking for a religion which would allow me to worship the god I wanted to worshipnot the One in the Bible, who I had earlier rejected. I bought a goddess charm which I wore on a necklace and, while I didn't delve deeply into Wicca, I gradually came to look upon myself as a neo-pagan.

Of course, I wasn't "neo" anything: I was a pagan just the same as those who worshipped the Ashtoreths back in the time of the Israelites! But I didn't think of it from that perspective, of course. I thought of it as a sort of feminist revival of a religion which suited who I was and wanted to be. There was a small voice inside which whispered "this is not going to please the One True God very much, is it?

And then I met Jeffrey one Saturday as I wandered through the local shopping centre with a friend. I still shudder at some of the things I said in that first conversation, but for some reason he was fascinated by me and rang me later in the week to ask for a date.

I remember thinking, after hanging up the phone, "That was odd I still wonder how he wasn't turned off in shock at my antics.

Jeff and I spent most of the next month arguing. Mostly about religion and our conflicting beliefs. However, he did tell me he loved me only two weeks after we metand I told him not long after that.

Seven weeks after we met Jeff asked me to marry him and I said yes, although I was quite put out that he chose to ask while I was barefoot in the kitchen cooking dinner. The champagne he had in the fridge almost made up for the burnt stir fry. Despite our engagement, the arguments continued. Jeff thought of himself as a Christian, and I thought of myself as a pagan. I tried to argue with him that god was really a multi-faceted being and he was just choosing to worship the facet called "God" by Christians and I was worshipping a "goddess" facet, but he wouldn't have a bar of it.

He told me it was all a load of rubbish. For the first time I ran up against someone who knew that post-modern pretensions that "it can be true for you, even if it's not true for me" didn't hold any water in the arena of religious belief.

And Jeff, who had been on the territory debating team in senior high school, was no slouch when it came to arguing his point forcefully. Still, I loved the adrenalin of the arguments almost as much as I hated the frustration of knowing I was losing most, if not all, of them. Several music psycholo- gists have presented evidence to prove that a different soundtrack differing in its musical structure and character accompanying the same visual segment will result in different judgments of the emotional categories e.

In chapter 1. Settling the score or, activity and rest, growth and decay provide a sense of organisation and mean- ing to the musical sound, apart from any extramusical association that might exist. Finally, c i n e m a t i c c o d e s influence musical signification merely due to the placement of musical sound within the filmic context.

Opening and ending credit music see chapter 1. I would now like to draw attention to another aspect of pre-existing film music. Namely, besides recognising the pre-existing music employed, it is often necessary also to recognise how the music is employed.

These matters can assume im- mense importance in interpreting both the film and the music. Thus it appropriately conveys tension, mystery, drama. But the cue goes on too long, and is repeated note for note too many times throughout the story to act as conventional movie music. Settling the score Many researchers have tried to define and systematise the functions of film mu- sic.

Lipscomb and David E. TolchinskyPhilip Tagg53, and Anu JuvaI will propose a set Unhurt World - Friend N Fellow - Fairy Godmother (CD ways in which mu- sic can serve to communicate meaning in film. Also, the functions generally do not depend on whether the music is diegetic or nondiegetic. I have grouped the film-musical functions as related to the film experience in general, to the actual content of film narrative, and to the narrative structure.

Regarding the nature of film experience in general Music typically plays an integral part of any film. Undeniably, the principal function of the film score is to mediate the emotional content of a cinematic narrative.

That is, to create mood atmospherefeeling, emotional expression and experience. Berlin: Henschel. In this capacity, the role of music is significantly enhanced by the level of ambiguity inherent in the visual scene. Music can also convey the scope of a film, effectively communicating whether the film is an epic drama or a story on a more personal scale.

Finally, music as an art form adds to the aesthetic or artistic effect of the film in acoustic terms, as well as by contributing to the integration of the film text. As is the case in art music, a leitmotif may either remain musically unaltered on its re- turn, or be altered in rhythm, intervallic structure, harmony, Album), accom- paniment, etc. It can also be combined with other leitmotifs in order to suggest a new dramatic situation.

Musical leitmotifs denote characters or situa- tions through a link with the visual images on the screen, and through repetition of this link. However, connotation also occurs when music foreshadows or contradicts the image on the screen.

Whether or not through the technique of leitmotif see abovemusic can connotatively specify the traits of a character e. For example, a neutral shot of a heroine reading a letter to the tune of horror music would let the audience know that the letter contains terrible news for her.

Yet it can also be effectively used to communi- cate a certain set of emotions that the character on screen does not experience. Settling the score For example, the same letter-reading scene with a neutral shot of a villain instead accompanied by the same music would tell the viewer that something awful is going to happen. In the latter case the letter carries terrible news for us — the audience — while it might be wonderful news for the evil character reading it. Thirdly, music can localise place and articulate space in general.

It can also convey the quality and size of a space, mak- ing small spaces seem more grand, artificial spaces e. In addition to mediating the aforementioned narrative ingredients, film music can, on a smaller scale: 1 emphasise movement, i. The two most frequently used dramaturgical techniques to execute this function are mickey-mousing and the stinger. The famed breakfast-table sequence in Citizen Kane, for example, showing Kane and his first wife sitting at pro- gressively greater distances from each other as the years pass, visually signaling the emotional dis- tance that grows between them, has a theme-and-variations music — as well as equally symmetrical shot compositions — to simultaneously bridge and demarcate the temporal discontinuities in the narrative.

It begins with Kane and his young wife very much in love. Her- rmann employs a gentle little waltz tune through this first portion, and as the montage proceeds, he writes a variation on the waltz tune for each sequence of the montage, the variations reflecting in mood the change in the relationship between Kane and his wife. I have already discussed the leitmotif see chapter 1. Besides, title music can also function mnemonically e.

Something, as yet undefined, is about to start! This is generally the case when they are of quite disparate character. The third type of formal structure for film scores Prendergast calls a developmental score ibid. Joe Settling the score Secondly, as established in chapter 0. It is also one of the main concerns of the current dissertation. Several devices cue the spectator: the association of the music with the sight of the character in a shot, a thematic association repeated and solidified during the course of the narrative, orchestration of music that was previously sung by or to the character, and the marked addition of reverberation for suggesting strongly sub- jective experiences.

Three common types of film-musical comments are: 1 the providing of an emotional dimension to a series of events that has just finished — usually empathetic61 i. Settling the score go ugly with a sudden cut to a foul deed ; 3 counterpoint, i. Intentional mismatch can also signify registers of irony, parody, or the grotesque. At this point I would suggest that music in film can contribute to the integration of the film text not only in terms of its formal-structural unity e.

The Raw and the Cooked. Introduction to a Science of Mythology. New York: Harper. Conclusions This chapter provided a basic introduction to the discipline of film music studies. Since the Introduction already established the critical point of departure for the analyses in this dissertation, chapter 1.

Before proceeding to discuss how film music generally works in chapter 1. In conclusion I would like to refer to two more standpoints which have been in- fluential in my approach to pre-existing tintinnabuli music. Certainly [ But beyond these very general meanings of the musical styles, meaning and affect arise from the care- fully choreographed meeting of film form and musical form.

It certainly does not convey the same load of associative information that instrumental Classic- Romantic film music rooted, by and large, in 19th-century Romanticism does for every enculturated audience member. This is especially the case when a film-maker is using pre-existing music, rather than music specifically composed round the images and words. This last aspect can hardly be said to be widespread in film music studies but to the contrary.

With the focus on close reading of individual film texts, I expect the analy- ses in this dissertation will have a contribution to make in contemporary film music studies. To quickly recall from previous discussions: as is generally agreed, musical signi- fication whether connotative or emotive64 is to a large extent culturally specific, and meaning in music is context-dependent.

In other words, music has the potential for specific meanings to emerge under specific circumstances. Still, when it comes to proposing k i n d s of meanings which music can express, emotion is undoubtedly the most frequent.

The signifying of emotions is also considered to be the primary function of music in film. And not only does music offer representation of feeling, but it also affords the elicitation of feeling in the viewer.

In researching pre-existing tintinnabuli music, one could thus hardly escape the question on the relationship between music and the expression of emotion. To han- dle this task I will first draw on analytical tools from cognitive musicology, particu- larly from the study of music and emotion.

In cognitive studies of musical expression, numerous features of music, whether represented in the notation or the performance, have been reported to be suggestive of discrete emotions. These features include tempo, pitch, interval, mode, melody direction, contour, rangerhythm, harmony, tonality, various formal properties, timbre, micro-intonation, loudness sound leveltiming, articulation, accents on specific notes, tone attacks and decays, and vibrato.

For example, in Western musical culture, some of the reported correlations between discrete basic emotions and musical features can be seen from Table 2. The relationships between features and emotions are best thought of as probabilistic or conditional.

Hence, each feature is neither necessary nor sufficient, but the larger the number of features used, the more reliable the communication. Summary of the most common findings in correlations between musical features and discrete emotions in musical expression. Source: Juslin In the next chapters, this will be followed by an explanation of how these pieces might support the com- munication of certain expressive meanings in film. For the purposes of this dissertation a musical attribute is defined as any aspect of sounding music i.

Additionally, it has to be an identifia- ble part of a musical continuum that may be referred to or designated in either con- structional or receptional terms. Although it may or may not have a ready name, it must be not only audible but also identifiable and at least approximately repeata- ble.

See also footnote on page Cook — In analysing the tradi- tional listener response, I have relied upon the reports by 20 different subjects that I have managed to collect see Appendix 1. As will be seen, these personal reports demonstrate a remarkable degree of intersubjective consensus in the general charac- ter of perceived expressions.

As an apt introduction to the subject of this chapter I will now describe the com- positional or structural essence of tintinnabuli as a determining constructional fac- tor besides performance of how the music sounds. The discussion of the recep- tional essence of tintinnabuli as concert music will follow.

As Leopold Brauneiss e. In that case the free descriptions have come from the film previews and reviews, gathered mostly through the Internet Movie Database www.

Hillier 92— This complementary interdependence between melodic M-voice and tintinnabuli voice T-voice is the core principle of the tintinnabuli technique. It also refers to the gradual unfolding of patterns implicit in the sound itself, and to the idea of a sound that is simultaneously static and in flux. Concomitantly, the type and intensity of emo- tional expression does not vary during the course of a piece of music see page Nevertheless, the following two lists of musical attributes lay no claim to universality as they describe an impression.

These lines are linked by a simple principle: the left hand plays an octave lower which- ever pitch in the B minor triad is nearest to the pitch of the right hand, though re- maining below it at all times. This rule is violated once, denoted by the flower drawn in the score, demanding the release of the sustaining pedal. Example 2. Compare esp. According to the most com- mon findings in studies of music and emotion see e.

Smooth as opposed may be perceived as expressing happiness, dignity, majesty, and to rough rhythm peace. High pitch may be associated with expressions such as happy, graceful, serene, dreamy, and exciting, and, further, with surprise, potency, anger, fear, and activity.

Wide pitch melodic may be associated with joy, whimsicality, and uneasiness; range intervallic leaps may suggest excitement. Large pitch variation may be associated with happiness, pleasantness, activity, or surprise. Legato articulation may be associated with sadness, tenderness, solemnity and softness. Soft music may be associated with softness, tenderness, sadness, solemnity, i.

Also, the reports on amplitude envelopes usually discuss only round slow attack and decay or sharp rapid attack and decaynot combinatory, shapes. That is to say, this or that expression depends on the context of other factors.

Similarly to Gabrielsson who investigates strong experiences with music I have found that this distinction may not be very important here. These imaginings, whether conscious or unconscious, are the stimuli to which the affective response is really made.

In short, music may give rise to images and trains of thought which, because of their relation to the inner life of the particular individual, may eventually culminate in affect.

The seeming discrepancies will be dealt with in chapter 2. Next I will look into Spiegel im Spiegel for violin and piano81, see Ex. Above a permanent flow of notes on the piano, the violin unfolds a cantilena in long note values, which grows out of succinct steps, every phrase always returning to the mirror axis. As can be seen in Chapters 3 and 4, the versions with violin and cello have been the most popular in films. In essence, what is said of vio- lin below is true for cello as well.

Spiegel im Spiegel bb. Yet their greatest differences, apart from the discoursing body duet vs. Narrow melodic may be associated with expressions of sadness, dignity, pitch range sentimentality, tranquility, delicateness, and triumphantness; stepwise motion may suggest dullness.

Small pitch variation may be associated with disgust, anger, fear, or boredom. Round envelope slow may be associated with tenderness, sadness, fear, disgust, tone attack and decay boredom, and potency. Otherwise I have very little to say. In other words, Spiegel im Spiegel should be associated above all with various expressions of happiness, joy, pleasantness, and grace. It thus gives rise to a new architectonic configuration which, like a meditation chapel, stimulates reflection, prayer or the desire for redemption.

Of course, as already mentioned, the emotional expression that one perceives is highly dependent on the presence and level of all musical attributes in interaction, i. Perhaps there would be formal attributes among these, the findings on which had not been consistent enough to report here but see chapter 3. Or perhaps there would be more complex musical attributes, e.

On the other hand, not all of the affective experiences in music are directly evoked by musical attributes see footnote 80 on page As Leonard B.

Since they are interpersonal, not only must the mechanism of association be common to the given cultural group, but the concept or image must have the same significance for all members of the group. In other words, although in a given culture one attitude toward an object or process will usually be dominant, others are possible. For exam- ple, although in our culture death is generally considered to be a solemn, fearful, and majestic summoned, it has also been viewed as an old friend or as the sardonic mocker of human pretensions.

And obviously each of these attitudes would become associated with very different types of musical presentation. The interassociations which give rise to such a connotative complex are fundamental in human experience. They are found again and again, not only in the myths and legends of many cultures, but also in several arts.

This means that such cycles as the day, the year, the cycli- cal chain of life and death of man or god, are considered as mutually homomorphous. Thus al- though night, winter and death are in some respects dissimilar, their close identification is not a metaphor as the consciousness of today would interpret it.

They are one and the same thing or rather, transformations of one and the same thing. Characters and objects mentioned at different levels of the cyclical mythological mechanism are different proper names for the same thing. The mythological text, owing to its exceptional ability to undergo topological transformations, can with surprising boldness declare to be one and the same thing phenomena which we would have consid- erable difficulty in comparing.

How much of the particularisation process is essentially as opposed to commercially, or music-industrially pre-conditioned? After all, in chapters 3. I will return to this in chapter 4. Especially, and unexpectedly for me, in terms of the dimension of valence! Grounded on the paradigm of cognitive studies of musical expression, I made propositions as to which musical attributes would be suggestive of those particular meanings.

Annabel Cohenfor example, has proposed that the capacity of music to succesfully accom- plish the task of expressing and creating emotion may be based on its ability to si- multaneously carry several kinds of emotional information in its different parame- ters, e. It could be that recognising those would require principles for structuring music other than those currently used in research on music-emotion relationships which, after all, are rooted in basic tonal music theory.

And secondly, I proposed that there could exist other and more complex correlations between the musical attributes and emotive paramusical structures than those I had drawn from research on music- emotion relationships. I will return to the former proposition in chapters 3. Another fascinating observation that emerged from analysing free descriptions were the expressed similarities in perceiving both pieces. To this I would here like to add some comments. Yet there can also be purely musical reasons for religious associations.

First of all, the specific overtonally rich bell-like sound of tintinnabuli music which normally engenders 89 Cf. John Chrysostom, or another of the literary saints. In the last weeks of his life, he listened to practically nothing else. One or two such anecdotes seem sentimental; a series of them begins to suggest a slightly uncanny phenomenon. Once, when Giles was away, the mother of one of the dying men called with an anxious query.

He is a composer who speaks in hauntingly clear, familiar tones, yet he does not du- plicate the music of the past. He has put his finger on something that is almost impossible to put into words—something to do with the power of music to obliterate the rigidities of space and time.

One after the other, his chords silence the noise of the self, binding the mind to an eternal present. Tabula rasa was being played on the radio. There in the middle of the desert, his music suddenly made sense — I could understand what people were talking about. The slow movement of Tabula rasa has a feel- ing of vastness and I sensed a connection between the music and the loneliness of the landscape.

There is something about the music and the way it is constructed — the textures and the patterns — that has a very primal quality. The music is somehow very religious and basic. This is also be- cause underlying the strong experiences related to music, is the interplay between musical, personal, and situational factors and each of these comprises many factors of its own see e.

Gabrielsson The main focus, however, will be to find out which meanings film- makers have found appropriate to mediate with tintinnabuli music. While the previous chapter introduced the paramusical field of connotation of tintinnabuli music as concert music, my general aim here is to learn about the paramusical field of connotation of tintinnabuli music as film music. Explanation of conventions used in the tables in Chapters 3 and 4.

All sequences containing tintinnabuli music in the film are bordered with a double-lined box. Se- quences without the double-lined box contain no music, unless stated otherwise. Notes on filmic means of expression are distinguished from descriptions of narra- tive content dialogue and action by italics. Any visual or auditory aspect brought forth has been considered noteworthy for different reasons which will be revealed and discussed in the main text.

Analysing musical multimedia 3. Director: Tom Tykwer. Cinematography: Frank Griebe. Film editing: Mathilde Bonnefoy. Casting: Shaila Rubin. Production design: Uli Hanisch. She has seen drugs kill her husband and some of her students. Her appeals to the police have been ignored. She knows that a high-rank- ing businessman, Marco Vendice Stefano Santospagois behind the Torino drug trafficking, and one day she plants a time bomb into the trash can in his office.

Yet chance and coincidence interfere when a cleaning lady removes the bomb with the trash and it explodes in an elevator, killing her plus a man and his two children. Four innocent people are dead as a result.

Philippa is arrested; she does not resist nor deny her guilt. Yet she finds out what had really happened only at the interrogation where she is falsely accused of organising a terrorist act.

The truth devastates her. Filippo Giovanni Ribisia young carabineer son of a former police chief serving as a stenographer and English translator at the interrogation process, comes to her aid. His initial sympathy quickly develops into a deep sincere feeling. During the interrogations it becomes apparent that the police forces are corrupt and in league with the drug-dealer. Filippo comes up with an es- cape plot. Before escaping, Philippa is determined to finish her mission.

Filippo pro- vides her with a gun to kill the drug baron. The fugitives go on the run through the Tuscan landscape although they are prepared for the inevitable. When the authorities raid the house where they are hiding, they steal the police helicopter landed on the front lawn and escape. On the ground, the officers fire repeatedly at them, but to no avail, as the craft climbs higher and higher and finally disappears.

Analysing musical multimedia importance of chance, coincidence and fate in human affairs is put into play, as to remind the viewer that there are things in life one cannot control, but only react to.

Since the film is about a woman who takes justice into her own hands, yet ends up unintentionally killing innocent people including two childrenthe dilemma of moral choices stands not only before the main characters, but also before the audi- ence. Given the circumstances, including police corruption, does she deserve salvation? What about people who help her? Instead, he observes them with interest from a distance, not intervening: in cinematography long-lasting high-angle overhead shots and slow camera spans become highlighted, music is seamless and the connotative cues cf.

Gorbman 73, 84ff it provides are exceptionally sub- tle compared to traditional Western film music standard practice see below. Making adequate judgements proves a challenging moral exercise, since it is very likely that, when watching the film, we soon find ourselves caring pas- sionately about a woman who has committed unforgivable crimes.

Tykwer is careful to spend time with them beforehand as they chat tenderly with their father; in the lift itself, they count the floors as they travel upwards. There can be no suggestion that Tykwer is minimalising the extent of what Philippa has wrought, or presenting an apologetic for it. She then goes on to kill Vendice, a man who could easily have been portrayed as the embodiment of evil but instead is given a scene in which he calls his partner to lament his being called away and hence arriving home to her late.

So when it comes to time codes in this disserta- tion, approximation is the best I can do. In the cutting room we used the music to such an extent that it became obvious that no other music could even begin to com- pete. The film also features three cues of original music, com- posed by Tom Tykwer himself; and five cues of background suspense-sounds over a sustained string pedal point e.

Beside music, silence plays a substantial role in Heaven. Out of c. These have been cited at length in Appendix 2. Their main function seems to be that of creating and holding suspense. I will now provide an overview of all the tintinnabuli-musical cues in the film in order to specify the narrative situations in which this music occurs, as well as to demonstrate how this music is paired with other filmic means of expression.

Let it be clear that all of the following sentences are written in an interpretative mood, even if they might appear declarative see page The film opens with a prologue sequence. The first thing we register is not an image, but a low sustained sound with an ambiguous timbre, which turns out to be rotor noise on a pedal of a musical sound. There is an inexplicable tension in the air.

It soon becomes clear we observe a lesson in piloting a helicopter where a flight simu- lator — the amalgam of reality and virtuality — is used. The flying instructor tells Filippo he cannot fly like this in real life.

The story then cuts to Philippa who is preparing a time bomb. As the camera passes over roof- tops and, later, rolling hills, a tranquil feeling of distance sets in; even the most frenetic motion, when viewed from above, becomes a peaceful study of lines and muted colors. In the final scene, the couple steal a helicopter and ascend straight toward the sky, simply dissolving into the blue.

The vi- suals are exquisite, but the floating, oceanic sensation they achieve owes just as much to the spare, luminous music chosen for the film. Visuals and sound effects fade out. Light is switched on, Philippa wakes up; she is arrested. Title: Heaven credits have already piano solo, rolled. Since the beginning of the cue a no other sounds except music were heard until the opening of the door window which startles her.

Philippa gets up and prepares to leave the cell. Three guards escort her way along the corridor. A few men are waiting in the hallway, conversing, smoking. Philippa and her escorts enter the interrogation room. The double-octave sound comes as a shock — totally unexpected, creating an impression of enormous power and aggressiveness, even brutality.

After the initial startling fast tone attack the double-octave interval becomes an array of overtones and resonances, the sensation being rather physical because of the various pulsations with different periods. Of course, at this point in the film, this is only appropriate since — considering one of the main func- tions of this still introductory musical cue: to attune the spectator — the first mo- ments of Heaven would suggest that it is a thriller.

Next to the music, all the diegetic sounds in this episode seem unnaturally loud. Moreover, the bleakness of the situation is intensified by adding echo to all sounds in the cor- ridor, as well as by the bluish light suggesting coldness that dominates the images we see. At first glance it may seem JohnDonne — was an English Jacobean poet, preacher and a major representative of the metaphysical poets of the period.

His works include sonnets, love poetry, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs, satires and sermons. His poetry is noted for its vibrancy of language and inventiveness of metaphor, especially as compared to those of his contemporaries. There can rarely be any doubt that at this point in her life Philippa could feel sad or desolated. Therefore this very reverb ties Filippo T3. Only at the interrogation where she is accused of organising a terrorist act does Philippa find out that she has not succeeded in killing the man behind drug scene, and has instead killed four innocent people.

The truth devastates her see Table 3. Filippo fetches the doctor. The doctor then orders Filippo to leave the room and close the door. Out in the corridor he takes notice of Vendice, following the interrogation from the next room. Then Filippo exits the police station. Late evening, a car wheels up a house. Analysing musical multimedia 6 Father enters the atrium, hangs his hat on a peg. Filippo and Ariel are sitting on the stairs, talking. Sound of chirping birds.

Establishing shot. Table 3. Variationen zur Gesundung von Arinuschka in — of Heaven. The first three variations are in A natural minor, and the last three are in A major.

The present musical sequence is cut at the end of the last minor-key varia- tion. Already at this point in the film, it is obvious that in editing music, much at- tention has paid to the following of the musical grammar. Also, Variationen He told me that he likes you the most of all the teachers.

He told me that you are a good person. I believe that. If you agree, please record that you agree and leave the tape under the table in the interro- gation room. There is a small shelf under the table top.

I was there when the doctor treated you. You squeezed my fingers tightly. Philippa lying down on her cot, hand — with the tape recorder on her heart. Music starts after she start of has turned her head back. Slow dissolve on A shot similar to T3. Dissolve on He rises and walks toward the building. Compared to Spiegel, all di- egetic sounds are suppressed. High-angle shot; dissolve on Philippa is being escorted down the hall. The interroga- tors and Vendice next door leave for a break. Filippo is left alone in the interrogation room.

He waits for a while, and then quickly moves towards the table. Analysing musical multimedia 8 Elapse of time. Late at night Filippo is in a car driving out from the police station. Then looks at his right. Filippo sitting, legs crossed, on his bed, recording his message to Philippa. Flashback or flash-forward? You go to the bathroom and return after several minutes. You will get into the elevator and go down into the garage. From there you can go up half a flight of stairs.

Slow pan on major Pini. Throw your sweater in the rubbish bin and head straight for the train station. Because I believe there will be something, Then Vendice steps next to him. Erase it! Spiegel im Spiegel in — of Heaven. Analysing musical multimedia From the start of the music, all diegetic sounds are suppressed until Filippo starts recording a message.

In other words, those sounds which do not directly con- cern Philippa and Filippo are suppressed. Another peculiar feature of the music ed- iting in this film became obvious to me during this sequence. In addition to once again observing how the musical grammar of Spiegel im Spiegel as concert music has been respectfully kept intact in this cue i. It is now clear that in this film the pre- existing tintinnabuli music is edited with the utmost respect, and there will be rea- sons to reveal in the final analysis see Chapters 3.

We are shown Filippo recording a message at home time1 with Philippa lis- tening in, in what seems to be the same time, but has to be time2. After the end of it, major Pini orders the erasing of the tape time3. These different passages in time are interwoven with the overflowing and, moreover, ever-continuous i.

It is as if discontinuous events in time are placed onto each other to commu- nicate a point of timelessness, and the music is there not only to smooth over, but also to underline this play of timings. Philippa and Filippo then manage to escape and carry out her mission. In the aftershock of killing Vendice they shakingly climb back to the attic see Table 3. The phase [track 2 on the CD] used in this musical cue My irony here comes from having been too many times annoyed by the insensitive ways in which concert music is presented in film.

Philippa collapses on the ground as if momentarily falling into sleep, but she hears Filippo stumbling to the window, sobbing. Police station — start of exterior. Philippa and Filippo asleep on the attic ground high- end of angle shot, descending, slowly circling. There is a faint — diegetic sound of clock ticking. Instead we hear the pedal point in the high register with a much shorter duration, that is to say, without as much time- space to resound.

Thus the feeling of menacing spaciousness is great- ly minimized, resulting in a more intimate expression. Furthermore, considering the series of events that has just finished, the music in this episode provides an almost consoling effect.

And there is an other instance of Philippa and Filippo waking up in exactly the same position: on the last morning under the Tree see below. As said, the discussion of camerawork in musical cues will be separately carried out in chapter 3. Analysing musical multimedia The two fugitives manage to reach the railway station where they catch a train see Table 3.

The diegetic sound of train is — suppressed. Train moving fast towards the light Spiegel im at the end of the tunnel. Do you know? I know exactly. I was dressed up like a — When she put the dress on she covered my face with the veil and burst into tears. They are walking towards the camera. Tuscan landscape in summer.

Philippa slowly continues walking, Filippo follows. They arrive at the church square. NUMBER-NUMBER majumdar singirok kooning hospodarske skyhawks hadamard segregate ragnarok maltin mouthparts arndt omg grammarians baan lousy bian universitatea berkhamsted lief killa turnip trautmann currier lfg zemo banqueting spratt frankland caricaturist hashem neuroscientist sandstorm republica oppressors cardiomyopathy mag-NUMBER unprovoked parathyroid miwok dusted aroostook iniNUMBER saharanpur indios presidencies intelligently contraindicated d'une first-week laplacian chuang.

NUMBER-millimeter decibel sa'id jaden referenda co-presenter veeck cerebus bureaux vicarious vaas khaldun thimphu belair highest-paid hemolytic mahavira duckett fleshed bester kirilenko bravado brumm tulloch letran crdit brecker bharathi work-related non-del tudes kunz stockmarket coram amistad plotlines dfNUMBER self-expression intracoastal ere tsuyoshi masterminding sidanko qos londo unsealed wallington ternate ase saint-michel buana single-story gigolo michle derleth surah franking choszczno uninteresting unhappily kauri.

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  7. The principal aim of this dissertation is to examine the use of Arvo Pärt's pre-existing tintinnabuli compositions in contemporary film soundtracks in order to determine the aesthetic reception of this music in film art. This will be achieved.

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