Transcending cultural differences and customs is just a small step to achieve that. Online Dating Guide. No matter who you ask, you will get the same answer: dating nowadays is hard. For single expats in Germany, dating is even harder.

Online Dating. The Praetorians placed Claudius on the throne, daring the Senate to oppose their decision. While the Guard had the power to kill off emperors, it had no role in government administration, unlike the personnel of the palace, the Senate, and the bureaucracy. Often after an outrageous act of violence, revenge by the new ruler was forthcoming.

In Didius Julianus purchased the Empire from the Guard for a vast sum, after the Guard auctioned it off. Later that year Septimius Severus marched into Rome, disbanded the Praetorians and started a new formation from his own Pannonian Legions. Even Vespasian in 69who relied upon the disgruntled cohorts dismissed by Vitelliusreduced their rank in number when ascending the throne.

Unruly mobs in Rome fought often with the Praetorian in Maximinus Thrax 's reign in vicious street battles. In Aurelian sailed east to destroy the power of Palmyra, Syriawith a force of legionary detachments, Praetorian cohorts, and other cavalry units.

The Palmyrans were easily defeated. This led to the orthodox view that Diocletian and his colleagues evolved the sacer comitatus the field escort of the emperorswhich included field units that utilized a selection process and command structure modeled after the old Praetorian cohorts, but was not of uniform composition and was much larger than a Praetorian cohort.

Two new corps, the Jovians and Herculians named after the gods Jove, or Jupiter, and Hercules, associated with the senior and junior emperorreplaced the Praetorians as the personal protectors of the emperors, a practice that remained intact with the tetrarchy.

By the time Diocletian retired on May 1, their barracks Castra Praetoria seems to have housed only a minor garrison of Rome. The final act of the Praetorians in imperial history started inwhen Maxentiusson of the retired emperor Maximianwas passed over as a successor: the troops took matters into their own hands and elevated him to the position of emperor in Italy on October Caesar Flavius Valerius Severusfollowing the orders of Galeriusattempted to disband the Guard but only managed to lead the rest of them in revolting and joining Maxentius.

When Constantine the Greatlaunching an invasion of Italy inforced a final confrontation at the Milvian Bridgethe Praetorian cohorts made up most of Maxentius' army. Later in Rome, the victorious Constantine definitively disbanded the Praetorian Guard. The soldiers were sent out to various corners of the Empire, and the Castra Praetoria was demolished. For over years they had served, and the destruction of their fortress was a grand gesture, inaugurating a new age of imperial history and ending the Praetorians'.

During this time it mostly removed or allowed to be removed cruel, weak and unpopular emperors while generally supporting just, strong and popular ones. By protecting these monarchs, thus extending their reigns, and also by keeping the mobs of Rome and the Senate in line the Guard helped give the empire a much needed stability that led to the period known as the Pax Romana.

It was not until after the reign of Marcus Aureliuswhen this period is generally considered to have ended, that the guard began to deteriorate into the ruthless, mercenary and meddling force for which it has become infamous.

However, during the Severan dynasty and afterwards during the Crisis of the Third Centurythe legions, the Senate and the emperorship along with the rest of Roman government were falling into decadence as well. Julia Domna From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigationsearch Julia Domna Julia Domna about -like her sister Julia Maesawas a daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria.

She was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire. In the late s, Julia Domna married future emperor Septimius Severus. Legend says that Severus, then governor of Gallia Lugdunensisspecifically asked for her to be his bride despite the fact that he did not know either Julia or her family, due to her horoscope that promised she would be a queen.

The marriage proved to be a happy one and Severus cherished his wife and her political opinions, since she was very well read and keen on philosophy. When Severus became emperor in he had a civil war waiting for him, against rivals such as Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus.

Julia Domna accompanied him in his campaigns in the East, an uncommon event in a time when women were expected to wait in Rome for their husbands. Nevertheless, she remained with the emperor and among the several proofs of affection and favour are the minting of coins with her portrait and the title mater castrorum mother of the camp. Julia Domna on a silver denarius As empress, Julia was often involved in intrigues and had plenty political enemies that accused her of treason and adultery.

None of these accusations were proven, Severus continued to favour his wife and insisted on her company in the campaign against the Britons that started in When Severus died, in in YorkJulia became the mediator between their two sons. Caracalla and Geta who were to rule as joint emperors, according to their father's wishes expressed on his will.

But the two young men were never fond of each other and quarrelled frequently. Geta was murdered in the same year. Caracalla was now sole emperor, but his relations with his mother were difficult, as attested by several sources, probably due to his involvement in Geta's murder.

Nevertheless, Julia Domna accompanied Caracalla in his campaign against the Parthian empire in During this trip, Caracalla was assassinated and succeeded briefly by Macrinus. On hearing about the rebellion, Julia Domna chose to commit suicide.

She was later deified. Cultural influence Due to these stories, Elagabalus became something of a hero to the Decadent movement in the late 19th century. He appears in many paintings and poems as the epitome of an amoral aesthete.

Newer Posts Older Posts Home. Subscribe to: Posts Atom. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields.

ENGLAND notice the diffrence in the braids or robe that flows from the helmet as well as the lion on top of the helmet of the coat of arms of the united kingdom ; thats briton to some ; to the one of canada ; the one on canada resembles my coat of arms ; also notice the addition to the three branches of ireland notation in flag ; the three leaf configuration as also in wheat ; liken unto the wheat to the braids on the crown in some flag refrences ; the wheat did someone draw in the sand with their finger ; the crop circles ; on the canadian one we have the spears like the ; the addition of the three french flowers in setting as but the crowns ; in three like the crowns on the ground ; the canadian crest has two white leaf ; one on each side of the helmet ; liken unto two white moose or two white flowers in a v ; or two and a middle ; a volcano rocks in the middle of an island, as but does a storm heads to its destination ; to a wing tear in space.

Zig-Hile, were did i put your swords but in my braids, no speken a doitch,nein, like a gay bar hat Nazi Germany under the leadership of Hitler soon became a dictatorship.

A dictatorship requires one person does it and one party to be in control of a nation and a climate of fear - this was provided by Himmler's SS. Personal freedom disappeared in Nazi Germany. My Other Blogs - by rcasc cantlon-name-history the-reunion cac-sister-of-rsac pegc-brother-of-rsac erc-mother-of-rsac rac father of rsac rsac-baby-pictures rcasc lion walking talking rcasc law link. It symbolizes Jesus as King of the Jews, in fulfillment of prophetic expectation, as well as the exalted Christ as King of Kings.

Las marcas principales son Orrefors y Kosta Boda. Galtispuoda, a 11 km. Con tiempo claro, se pueden ver 4 comunidades vecinas Sorsele, Jokkmokk, Arvidsjaur y Saltdal de Noruega. Hay que verlo para creerlo. Muy pocos lugares en Suecia pueden ofrecer tal variedad de posibilidades para la pesca como Sorsele.

The important thing is this: for one glorious summer I had a brother. I was an only child who never especially wanted siblings. I cherished my solitude and was never bored. Daddy Bill and I were pals, and if I needed more companions there were always plenty of kids in the neighborhood.

We lived in a small, two-bedroom apartment. Jay slept on our couch and made the living room his domain. As a tween on the precipice of puberty, I was utterly fascinated by this confident, lanky year-old now living in our midst. It seemed like the most natural thing in the world, the way he immediately made himself at home, blasting Frampton Comes Alive on the stereo, watching Midnight Special on the tube, drinking Sprite, talking on the phone, holding court.

I thought Jay hung the moon, and he knew it. Dad knew it, too. Inviting Jay to move in may have sprung from a desire to help Judy, but it turned out to be the very best thing for all of us. Jay had a stabilizing influence in our home. His arrival prompted Dad to come out of his cave. Order was restored. We kept the pantry stocked, shared household chores, enjoyed regular meal times, and took road trips together. Jay showed me how to assert my independence.

After Jay, I was my own man. There were three of us now, each with his own desires and responsibilities. We were a family. But Jay was more to me than an ersatz older brother. He was like a cosmic life coach, sent by the universe to guide me through the emotional, hormonally turbulent life transition from boyhood to early adolescence. Our alliance felt all the more momentous because we knew it to be temporary. Jay would stay in Columbus to finish high school, and I would move out west with Daddy Bill.

Dad had accepted a new teaching position in Tucson, so that was where I would turn 13, begin junior high, and meet my destiny. If Jay felt it was a drag to have a shadow that summer before his senior year, he certainly never showed it. He introduced me to his friends and let me tag along on their outings.

He helped me find a job mowing lawns, taught me how to pop a wheelie on my bike, and hipped me to all kinds of music. At night I would make a pallet on the floor between the couch and coffee table, so we could continue talking into the wee hours. Our late night heart-to-hearts offered a crash course in what I should expect from life over the next few years. I asked Jay all about the rituals You Can See The Village - The Ukrainians - Respublika (CD dating and how to talk to girls.

I was riveted and hung on his every word. But I sure hope he knows how important he was to me that summer, and how grateful I remain. When the moving van showed up I was ready. Packing up was a breeze. Moving days are always bittersweet, but this one felt different.

Inspired by everything I learned from Jay, I was committed to reinventing myself. I divided my belongings into two piles. We loaded them onto the truck. Word got around quickly and the neighborhood kids descended like vultures. I sold everything I could and gave away the rest, pocketing a little over five hundred dollars. A world citizen You Can See The Village - The Ukrainians - Respublika (CD a xenophile whose identity transcends geography.

Rather than swearing allegiance to a particular nation, ethnicity, or religion, the world citizen treats everyone with equal respect, and derives his rights and responsibilities from membership in the human race at large. He endeavors to be a man for all people. I aspire to be a Citizen of the World.

Art Farmer was such a man. At the height of his success, as his Jazztet was winning American popularity polls, Art relocated to Vienna, Austria, then commenced to tour internationally for decades. His extensive discography includes dozens of collaborations with musicians all over the world. Near the end of his storied life and career, he was awarded both the NEA Jazz Masters Fellowshipthe highest honor our nation bestows upon a jazz musician, and the prestigious Austrian Cross of Honor for Science and Art, First Class.

Art had been an adventurer ever since he was a teen, when he and twin brother Addison set out for Los Angeles in search of their destinies. But even after many productive decades in the music business, Art never lost his humility or curiosity. He knew that his chosen career of traveling musician granted admission to the global creative class, an identity he cherished as the foundation of his enlightened worldview. Occasionally I experienced little more than a hotel and concert hall, but whenever time would allow, I made sure to get out, see the sights, and break bread with the locals.

For several years in the late nineties and early aughts, Amina and her husband Bart generously hosted me at their home in the Netherlands each fall, an annual residency that enriched my life beyond measure. I love and admire them both as artists, friends, and world citizens.

It was my privilege to record two albums with Amina for Munich Records. Although I never became a pilot holding out for a jetpack, I supposeI never missed an opportunity to fly, and the long international flights were often most luxurious.

Singapore Airlines provided big leather chairs, soft lighting, and an array of Asian delicacies. British Airways offered formal tea and cakes; Japan Airlines served sake and sushi.

Virgin Airlines had spa treatments and sleeping pods. And KLM, my favorite, boasted a gorgeous cohort of leggy blonde stewardesses, whose fitted blue uniforms and winning smiles harkened back to the Golden Age of Air Travel. The airports, however, were chaotic, unpleasant places. Departure meant grappling with the recently formed TSA, whose agents relished their nascent power like freshly minted mall cops.

Arrival meant trying to appear inconspicuous under the gaze of scowling soldiers, in full riot gear, with machine guns. We learned to allow an extra hour or two for security screening, during which agents would empty our bags, disassemble our instruments, pat us down and shout commands over the hum of x-ray scanners.

Take off your belt and shoes! No liquids! I wanted to find out what sort of Silk Road Shangri-La could produce such a regal, charismatic bandleader. We arrived in Baku exhausted, to long lines of weary, grey-faced travelers. Prepared for a long wait at customs, we took our place at the back of the crowd. Suddenly a dapper gentleman in a dark suit appeared beside us.

He smiled warmly, greeted us by name, placed our passports in his breast pocket, and handed Amina a giant bouquet of flowers, kissing You Can See The Village - The Ukrainians - Respublika (CD on both cheeks. The distinguished official then ushered us briskly through the crowd, past customs, down a private corridor and straight outside, where a ceremonial honor guard stood waiting at attention beside a row of shiny black town cars.

I was right. The whole band was wined, dined, and treated like royalty. We feasted on grilled lamb, champagne and caviar, serenaded by a traditional darbuka ensemble complete with belly dancer, who danced with all of us after dinner.

The evening concluded with an astonishingly long series of celebratory cognac and vodka toasts to Amina, her family, and the band.

It was a glorious evening. The festival itself was a triumph of concerts, workshops, jam sessions and creative collaboration. But the great highlight was our concert at the historic Respublika Palace theater. We played our hearts out, and the band never sounded better. The audience cheered wildly. My new dream is a little more down-to-earth. When I was first starting out, my mentor Art Farmer told me what it really takes to persevere in this business.

I was reminded of his words a few years later when I asked record producer Cookie Marenco how to get the word out about my first CD. Your tour schedule determines everything: which stations play your music, what stores will carry it, when publications will review it, how people hear about it, and most importantly, whether anyone buys it. Such advice may seem silly in this digital age of streaming music and social media. But back in the 20th century we had no choice but to hit the road and participate in the obligatory rain dance of jargon alert!

No problem here. Daddy Bill conscripted me into the vagabond lifestyle when I was still a toddler. I pretty much grew up in the backseat of his VW Fastback. By the time I left home at age 17, we had already moved nine times and taken dozens of road trips together. I rambled through New England for pick-up dates in the horn sections of touring Motown and pop acts, met up with Art for flugelhorn lessons on both coasts, and journeyed to Florida and California for gigs with Berklee friends.

I even maxed out my first couple of credit cards chasing a particularly enthralling girl from New York City to London, Ontario, and back again. I was a novice nomad, but was already on a first name basis with half a dozen skycaps and flight attendants. So bywhen I began touring as a bandleader in support of my debut album Red ReflectionsI was already a seasoned traveler.

I well acquainted with the rules of the road: pack light, arrive early, sit tight, be cool, expect delays. I tried to find out everything I could about how to make the most of life on the road. Hal Galper had not yet published The Touring Musicianthe resource that would ultimately become my bible, so I collected travel hacks wherever I could find them. I worked with agents to find the best deals, consulted a nutritionist for health and wellness ideas, and read magazines to collect business travel tips and tricks.

I even asked experienced flyers to share their secrets for gaming the system, such as how to qualify for early boarding and how to gain admission to exclusive airport lounges with fireplaces, daybeds and private showers. But my number one travel guru, the person from whom I learned the most, was my friend and fellow road warrior, bassist Ruth Davies. After years of touring with blues legend Charles Brown, Ruth knew everything there was to know about life on the road.

The person from whom I learned the most was my friend and fellow road warrior, bassist Ruth Davies. Eventually our circuit expanded to include a few midwest and east coast dates as well.

We were still only traveling domestically, but since concert promoters rarely covered our travel costs, we learned to leverage frequent flyer miles Album) points-based affinity programs to receive discounted flights and hotel stays. Then in the late s I lucked into a quasi-sponsorship arrangement with American Airlines which enabled me to fly at no cost whatsoever.

I would volunteer a few hours each week to assist my friend Bobbi, an event promotions manager for the carrier. In exchange she gave me vouchers for free air travel throughout the United States.

Since these were the same certificates used by official airline personnel, gate agents would often quietly upgrade me to first class, no questions asked. Plus, no matter where my final destination was, American always seemed to route me through DFW.

On more than one occasion, what should've been a two-hour hop from SF to Portland turned into an all day odyssey with a long layover in Dallas. Crazy, right? A free flight is a free flight. Plus, by that point I had trained myself to work at the gate and sleep on the plane. I took the earliest possible flight the day before a show so that any delays would only be a minor inconvenience.

And I always brought my practice mute so that even long layovers would be time well-spent. Whenever possible, I chose to fly out of Oakland, my home airport.

They let you park right in front of the terminal, check-in was a breeze, and they even played classic jazz over the public address system. Oakland Airport was a dream back then, much smaller and way hipper than SFO. Tongue tied and twisted, just an earthbound misfit, I. Daddy Bill was always looking skyward, peering jealously through his binoculars at the raptors kettling overhead.

Like me, he could fly in his dreamsand as a boy he imagined doing it for real. Young Billy wanted so badly to be a bird. According to family legend, he even broke his leg in an attempt to launch himself into the clouds, after the ghost of my great grandmother appeared to him in a dream and encouraged him to leap off the roof of the barn.

Unlike my Dad, I never watched birds, joined the air force, or injured myself trying to defeat the laws of physics, but I definitely inherited his vivid imagination and impulse to fly. Nearly all my childhood heroes were flyboys of one sort or another. Luke had an X-wing and Kirk had a starship. James Bond had his jet pack and James Brown had his private jet. Such notions were not uncommon for children of the s and 70s. We were raised by television to defy gravity. It never would have occurred to me to pretend I was the Lone Ranger.

Could Evel Knievel fly? He sure as hell tried. Some of my pals were even more obsessed with flight than I. Lance was a space nerd who knew everything about the Apollo missions and could even recite the names of all the astronauts. Jeffrey could tell you what kind of jet was flying overhead just by looking at its silhouette. And all of us were jealous of Payton, whose uncle was a helicopter pilot.

Commercial airline flights were still considered a luxury in those days, something that only executives, celebrities and rich people could easily afford. This was the tail end of the Golden Age of Air Travel, when seats reclined all the way back and there was still plenty of legroom for everyone.

The Golden Age of Air Travel. Passengers wore their finest clothes, dined on steak and lobster, and drank endless complimentary cocktails. Beautiful air hostesses, glamorous as models, paraded the wide aisles with magazines and trays of hors d'oeuvres, pausing to lean and light the cigarettes of ladies and gentlemen alike. But the real stars of this hedonistic theater-in-the-sky were the dashing and charismatic pilots.

Pilots commanded respect. Meeting an airline pilot in uniform was like shaking the hand of a famous military hero or movie star. I only flew a couple of times with my family back then, when I was still too young to appreciate or even fully recall the experience. But I do have one very clear memory: a friendly, square-jawed Delta Airlines pilot winking at me as he leaned over to hand me my very first souvenir kiddie wing pin.

The first flight I remember well was not on a commercial airline, Album), but a tiny Cessna seaplane that Daddy Bill chartered from Key West, Florida to the Dry Tortugas. The year was and I was nine years old. My Dad only half listened, preferring to focus on the sky and his quest of adding some rare pelagic birds to his North American life list. I just giggled the entire time, giddy with delight as we soared through the air.

I would happily go up again and again over the next few years. By the early s, commercial air travel had become significantly more affordable. Small budget airlines were just starting up, and the larger companies lowered their prices in order to compete. Like many middle class families, we chose to fly rather than spend most of our vacation driving to and from our destination. On the plane, people were still allowed to smoke, but it was becoming less fashionable to do so, and only first class passengers enjoyed the few remaining perks.

I loved flying and looked forward to every opportunity. They have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts. Concert stages, stages of life, and all the stages on which we perform, both literally and figuratively. Social media is itself a kind of performance space, where people gather for creative expression and the exchange of ideas. Depending on the user, social media may offer an elevated platform for high-minded art and ideals, an open forum for lively discussion and debate, or a cynical echo chamber of fear mongering, conspiracy peddling, virtue signaling and performative activism.

Or you can just post puppy photos! The virtual stage provided by live-streaming technology has been a godsend for performers during the shutdown, enabling us to stay active and remain in touch with friends and fans.

Live-streaming is no substitute for the real deal. But it can be thrilling to play for an international audience without ever having to leave the house. Food for thought as we consider the post-pandemic commute. Of course, real life also offers myriad opportunities to perform. Like actors in a play, we inhabit various roles at different stages of life: the good son, the good spouse, the good worker, the good friend, the good man.

As I look back over my own life and career, I can identify seven stages of development. Shout out to Wikipedia for the psychobabble refresher! Through it all, my refuge and sanctuary has been the concert stage, a sacred space where artists and audiences meet in search of a shared transcendent experience. Music is a spiritual calling, and the stage is our church. The Immortal Bobby Hutcherson. Ours is a precious and precarious ecosystem which we must never take for granted.

The relationship between artist and venue is a symbiotic one. Simply put, we need each other. Too often, however, relations between performers and those who hire them are perceived as adversarial.

I miss the creative collaboration, intimacy and immediacy of live performance. Most of all, I miss seeing the faces of people in the audience as we experience the miracle of music together.

Small venues have been hit especially hard by the pandemic shutdown. Many went out of business almost immediately. Of those remaining, ninety percent report that they are at risk of closing without additional financial assistance.

Enter Save our Stagesa bipartisan bill to provide billions of dollars in relief grants for venues. I refuse to sit by and let the music die. Save Our Stages is an emergency relief fund for live event venues and promoters. My buddy Ed, a jazz guitarist and concert promoter in Ashland, Oregon, optimistically predicts a post-pandemic gold rush for events.

He believes that audiences, having been deprived of live music for so long, will return in record numbers, more motivated than ever to buy tickets and support the arts. Makes sense to me. I, for one, have learned that live music matters immensely, and stages are absolutely essential. And maybe for the first time in your life, life will smile right back at you and welcome you home. When Daddy Bill passed away last December, just before my 55th birthday, I felt something change in me.

Way down deep, beneath the ocean of love and gratitude for all that he was, below the waves of grief, loss and mourning, there was a feeling of release. Not relief, mind you, but release, as if by saying goodbye to this world, my father was giving me permission to let go of certain unrealistic expectations about my own place in it.

Ironic, since he never pressured me in any way, and was always encouraging, no matter what. He believed in me. He loved my music and supported my life choices without reservation. Daddy Bill has always been in my corner.

His approval was a given. I visited him in Tucson every few months, and called him every Sunday. Because of his condition, we could only talk about small things: the weather, the news, what he had for breakfast.

Emerging Europe. September Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 12 April Human Development Reports. Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 14 April Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 31 March Granice plemienia Polan. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 1 August Leiden: Brill. Slavia Antiqua. ISBN p. University of California, Los Angeles, Karty pracy ucznia.

Poziom podstawowy in Polish. Warszawa Warsaw : Nowa Era. Nature News. S2CID Maring-Van der December University of Groningen. Heart of Europe. The Past in Poland's Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nauka w Polsce in Polish. Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki. Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 9 January East Central Europe.

The Catholic Church in Polish History. From to the Present. OCLC Retrieved 26 October Warszawa Warsaw : W. Prazmowska A History of Poland. Palgrave Macmillan. Gordon Religious Celebrations. The First Thousand Years. New York: Cornell University Press. Rzeczpospolita nie doceniona.

Kultura naukowa i polityczna Polski przedrozbiorowej in Polish. Warszawa Warsaw : Pax. Encyklopedia Polska Stosunki polityczne od zarania po czasy najnowsze. Legnica in Polish. Warszawa Warsaw : Bellona. The union of Lublin, Polish federalism in the golden age. East European Monographs. Sokol Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Britannica Educational Publishing. A History of East European Jews. Central European University Press.

Northern Europe. International Dictionary of Historic Places. The Middle Ages. Dictionary of World Biography. Volume 2. Timelines of World History. Publisher: DK Adult. In Frucht, Richard C.

Retrieved 8 April At the same time, when most of Europe was decimated by the Black Death, Poland developed quickly and reached the levels of the wealthiest countries of the West in its economy and culture.

The Oxford History of Poland-Lithuania. Volume 1. Vanished Kingdoms. The History of Half-Forgotten Europe. London: Penguin. Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America. The Visegrad Four and the Western Balkans. Baden-Baden: Nomos. Europe: a history. The Parliaments of Early Modern Europe. Knoll Political Realities and Social Constrains.

In Howard Louthan ; Gary B. Cohen; Franz A. Szabo eds. Berghahn Books. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Yale University Press. Global Crisis. New Haven: Yale University Press. The Wars of Religion in Europe. Vachendorf: Perennial Press. The History of the Baltic States. Dzieje Polski in Polish. Polska: Zielona Sowa. Warrior Kings of Sweden. McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers. Warszawa Warsaw : Uniwersytet Warszawski.

Tsars and Imposters. Russia's Time of Troubles. New York: Algora. Encyklopedia historii Polski: A-M in Polish. Polska: Morex. The History of Modern Europe. From the Fall of Constantinople, into the War in the Crimea, in London: J. Warsaw: PW "Wiedza Poweszechna". Retrieved 17 March Nauka polska. Polska Akademia Nauk. Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 11 July New York: St. Martin's Press, pages. A Concise History of Poland.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Historicising the French Revolution. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars. Paths of Integration: Migrants in Western Europe — Amsterdam University Press. Keter Books. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 18 June Arcta,p. Poland in the Modern World: Beyond Martyrdom. BBC News. Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared. Cambridge University Press. Harvard University Press.

Zaloga; Richard Hook The Polish Army — Osprey Publishing. Retrieved 6 March — via Google Books. Historical Dictionary of Poland, — Greenwood Publishing Group. Garrison Walters The other Europe: Eastern Europe to Syracuse University Press.

Tito's partisans — Retrieved 1 March Comprehensive history of the Holocaust. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Black earth: the Holocaust as history and warning First ed. New York: Tim Duggan Books.

Translation: The number of Jewish victims is estimated at 2,9 million. Source: IPN. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Translation: Current estimate is roughly 2, victims of German occupation. This was Intelligenzaktion ] PDF in Polish. Institute of National Remembrance. Archived from the original PDF file on 29 November Retrieved 4 January Translation: It is estimated that Intelligenzaktion took the lives ofPoles. Polskie straty to 76— tys.

Archived 25 January at the Wayback Machine Remember. Archived from the original on 18 August Poland in the geographical centre of Europe. Google Books preview. Warsaw: Didactica. Archived from the original PDF on 26 June Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences. BBC — History. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, PWN Encyklopedia in Polish. Archived from the original on 1 October Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 8 July Ministry of National Defence.

Poland in the EU.

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  1. Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces, covering an area of , km 2 (, sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. Poland has a population of nearly million people, and is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union.

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  9. “You can accomplish anything you want if you set your mind to it” was the familiar refrain. To this powerful maxim, add the privileges of being an only child, attending a prestigious school, and growing up white and male in the American south, and it’s easy to see how I .

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